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ABSTRACT

 

Objectives: The purpose of the review is to discover the efficacy of bronchial thermoplastic in adults with severe persistent asthma.

 

Design: Multistudy Review

 

Methods: The research study was recognized through the research of MEDLINE, PubMed and EMBASE. In this research study some term have been used such as “Bronchial, Thermoplasty, Asthma, bronchoscopy, catheter ablation, alair system”. The inclusion criteria contained randomized control clinical trials of adult patients along with uncontrolled asthma that compared the bronchial thermoplastic procedure with standard medical therapy or a pretended procedure. Primary outcomes observed superiority over life as determined through the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire, Symptom control as determined through the ACQ (Asthma Control Questionnaire) scores, as well as some changes in pulmonary function parameters through pre/post forced expiratory volumes (FEV1) and Peak Expiratory Flow rates (PEF).

 

Results: Two qualifying trials, RISA and AIR2, they have used different study design and included a total of 322 contributors. The RISA trial competes bronchial thermoplasty versus medical management while an AIR2 trial competes bronchial thermoplastic versus a pretended interference. Measures of symptom control through ACQ score were conflicting, but there were not some important improvements in lung functions. The AQLQ score for the AIR2 trial did not show a significant improvement, as there were similar changes for both the pretended and the bronchial thermoplastic group. On the contrary, the AQLQ scores for the RISA trial described a statistically important development, but risk for bias was high, as it couldn’t use a pretended interference for its control group.

 

Conclusion: This study evaluates and suggests that bronchial thermoplastic is not a good choice of adults with severe persistent asthma. The observed development within the quality of life scores noted by the RISA trial is in the risk of bias, as the study is marginally powered and did not include a pretended control. More studies are required to improve and recognize the effects of bronchial smooth muscle ablation, and additional RCT using a sham intervention.

 

INTRODUCTION

Approximately 39.5 million people in USA treated with affected asthma disease. In these affected people there were 39.5 million to 8.9 million (8.2%) adults that still have asthma1. Majority of asthmatics have mild to moderate persistent asthma that is amenable to beta agonist and inhaled corticosteroids. However, less than 15% have severe asthma that is resistant to these treatment modalities; interestingly. Moreover, this small percentage of asthmatics account for a significant number of, humanity, morbidity and a very high cost for the treatement2.  For these reasons, there’s a clear need for more effective treatment strategies to adequately control symptoms of patients with severe persistent asthma.

 

Bronchial thermoplastic is slightly aggressive process designed for patients whose asthma remains poorly controlled even after taking corticosteroids and long-acting beta agonists. During the process, radiofrequency-generated heats has been provided for the airway wall of the flexible bronchoscope. Bronchial thermoplastic is designed to reduce bronchial smooth muscles, thereby resulting in decrease of airway flat muscle mass3. With the reduction of smooth airway muscles, the idea is that there will be decreased airway hyper responsiveness leading to decreased airway resistance. The prototype patient is expected not to only decrease symptoms and exacerbations, but also increased quality of life plus this will control their asthma for long time.

 

Current trials of bronchial thermoplastic treatments are performed with a flexible bronchoscope in three different sessions. In order to minimize the risk of asthma exacerbation and airway edema, each session has been separated from an interval of 3 weeks. The right lower lobe cured on 1st the session, the left lower lobe has been cured on the 2nd session, and both upper lobes cured on the 3rd session. The right middle lobe doesn’t cure after the hypothetical association with provoking right middle lobe syndrome3(p105) which is characterized by repeated atelectasis of the right middle lobe from conditions of bronchial inflammation which may lead to fibrosis, granulation tissue formation, or submucosal edema4.

 

The utilization of bronchial thermoplastic as an approach from severe asthma began after it was tested for the airways of dogs5. The authors measured airway responsiveness by using a known airway constrictor, methacholine, after radio-frequency energy was delivered to a specific lung region. The study expressed decreased airway hyper responsiveness plus a reduction in the smooth airway muscle masses in the airways treated with bronchial thermoplastic. Since, it has been used in patients with lung malignancies6 and is now approved of uncontrolled asthma.

 

The purpose of this review is to investigate the question, “Is bronchial thermoplasty an effective therapeutic option in adults with severe persistent asthma?”  The current worldwide accepted definitions of severe asthma as established through the ATS (American Thoracic Society) and the ERS (European Respiratory Society) include the following patient with7:

 

agonist, montelukast or theophylline
FEV1 <80%
At least 2 exacerbations within the last 12 months

Oral Corticosteroids >6 months/year
ACQ >1.5

 

The PICO elements are:

Intervention: Bronchial Thermoplasty
Comparison:  fake interference and Medical management
Patient Population: Adult patients with severe-persistent asthma.

 

AQLQ 8 specified health-associated quality of life questionnaire developed to examine and investigate the emotional as well as physical influence of the disease. 32 replies has been counted upon a scale of 1-7 along with higher scores representing good quality of life. An alteration in score of 0.5 is the minimum change considered to be clinically important. The Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ)9 is another validated questionnaire which calculates the competence of asthma control, as well as alteration in control that either occurred impulsively or by a result of cure. 7 replies are counted upon a scale of 0 (totally controlled) and 6 (severely uncontrolled). An alteration in score of 0.5 is also considered a minimum alteration to be clinically significant.

 

Two qualifying randomized controlled tests are analytically assessed which are mentioned below:

METHODS   

 

In November 2016, a PubMed research has been accomplished in this research study some term has been used such as “bronchial thermoplastic and asthma,” yielding 170 articles. The below mentioned to searching limits was performed that establish the presence criteria: Clinical tests, Humans and publication dates from 2006 to 2016. These limits narrowed the yield to 8 articles.

 

Further articles were rejected found upon the below mentioned principles: 1. Study that did not observe effectiveness of bronchial thermoplastic 2. Study that observed less that 20 patients. 3. Study that only observed mild to moderate asthma. The above criteria narrowed the yield to 4 RCT. One of them was an extension of an original RCT and that’s why this was omitted10.

 

Three full-text articles were assessed for eligibility and were individually evaluated. Of these 3 RCTs observed, one (AIR trial)11 observed a total of 109 patients. Of these patients, 43% did not have severe persistent asthma. These patients were not stratified based on the severity of their asthma as the data onto both the control and experimental group were intertwined. For these reasons, the AIR trial was also omitted from this review.

 

Two published eligible research study was separately measured for significance and legitimacy using consistent standards plus each study was allocated to a level of proof rating. For this review, the main outcomes observed quality of life as competed for the Asthma AQLQ, Symptom control as competed through the (ACQ) scores, and changes into pulmonary function parameters through pre/post forced expiratory volumes (FEV1) and Peak Expiratory Flow rates (PEF). Parallel studies has been practiced upon the below mentioned databases: EMBASE, MEDLINE and no additional clinical trials met the above criteria.

 

RESULTS

 

Study #1

 

A multi-center studies titled The RISA (Research in Severe Asthma) tested by Pavord et al12 was led in eight centers of Brazil, UK as well as Canada. 34 adult contributors with severe asthma whose symptoms were uncontrolled despite high-dose inhaled corticosteroids as well as  long acting beta leukotriene theophylline or modifiers, agonist with or without oral prednisone. The objective of the research was to discover the security and efficacy of bronchial thermoplastic in subjects with symptomatic, severe asthma.

 

Validity assessment: 1C. Study design: This is an unblended randomized controlled trial where the contributors have been randomized either to a control group with only medical management (N=17) or to a cure group with a bronchial thermoplastic procedure (N=17).  The following key inclusion criteria were used in the RISA trial: asthmatics age 18 to 65, high-dose inhaled corticosteroids, long-acting beta agonist with or without oral prednisone, prebronchodilator FEV1 >50% of predicted, hyper responsiveness to methacholine challenge and smoking cessation for 1 year or greater and past smoking history of less than 10 pack years. The following key exclusion criteria were used: use of immunosuppressant therapy, current or use of external pacemaker, recent presence of other respiratory diseases, lower respiratory tract infection as well as important co-morbid disease for example, cerebral vascular disease or cancer. The mean age of the patients in the bronchial thermoplasty group were 39.1 while the control group had a mean age of 42.1. The percentage of males in the experimental and control group were 40% and 59%, respectively. 100% of the contributors were identified their race as white. Asthmatx Inc., the company that designs, manufactures and markets the Alair® Bronchial Thermoplasty System, provided funding and the investigators reported receiving grants, speaker fees and expense reimbursement from Asthmatx and other companies.

 

Study conduct: All contributors were randomized using the sealed envelope system based on computer-generated code. After randomization, contributors completed a two-week run-in period prior to the treatment phase.  The treatment group then underwent 3 procedures that occurred at three-weekly intervals. During this state the entire topics preserved their standard asthma medications.  Subsequently the cure era, all contributors entered into a 16week (wks. 6-22) stable steroid phase, tracked via  a 14-week  (wks. 22-36) steroid wean phase, plus finally 16 weeks (wks. 36-52) of reduced steroid treatment.  In the steroid wean phase, contributors dose of corticosteroids was reduced by 20 to 25% of their base line dosage.  If contributors experienced an exacerbation, the dissuading procedure has been halted and the subject was placed back in their previously tolerated dosage. Throughout the condensed steroid treatment phase, contributors were sustained on the medication and dosage arranged at the end of the steroid dissuade phase for ALAP. Follow-up was adequate, consisting of 52 weeks in the final assessment. Two contributors in the experimental group were lost to follow-up as they withdrew from the research before receiving to cure therefore, 15 contributors in the bronchial thermoplasty group and 17 in the control group were involved in the ultimate examination.

 

Study results: Baseline AQLQ scores for the experimental group and control group were 3.96(+ 1.34) and 4.72 (+ 1.06) respectively.  After the reduced steroid phase at 52 weeks, mean AQLQ scores in the bronchial thermoplasty group increased by 1.53 (+ 0.79) and by 0.42 (+ 0.82) in the control group, P=0.001. Given that the experimental group increase in AQLQ scores was >0.5, the test informed a statistically important development in quality of life for subjects that receive the bronchial thermoplasty intervention compared to contributors receiving medical management alone. On the ACQ scores baseline scores were 2.83(+1.02) in the bronchial thermoplasty group vs. 2.23 (+ 0.75) in the control group. There was an average decrease of -0.99 (+ 0.83) in the experimental group compared with a reduction of -0.22 (+ 0.78) in the control group, P=0.01. The study demonstrated an improvement in the symptom control. With respect to pulmonary function, there were no statistically important alterations in FEV1 scores after 52 weeks. There were also no important alterations in PEF rate measured after 22weeks although the authors failed to report the PEF rate after 52 weeks.

 

Study Conclusions: Given that the primary outcome was to evaluate safety of bronchial thermoplasty, the authors concluded that some patients with severe persistent asthma was capable to tolerate the procedure. It was connected with a short-term growth of illness during the cure phase but also demonstrated impending for improving asthma control as well as quality of life of patients with severe asthma. Although the changes in ACQ as well as  AQLQ was statistically important after reduction of corticosteroid treatment, they recommended that the improved in short term risk of adverse events during bronchial thermoplasty was weighted against their proof of the range of asthma control. They believe that appropriately powered studies that use a blinded sham treatment will allow for better interpretation of the risk-benefit analysis of bronchial thermoplasty. Study Quality Rating: Poor

 

Study #2

 

A multi-center study titled The Asthma Intervention Research (AIR2) trial by Castro et al13 was conducted at 30 investigational centers of USA, United Kingdom, Canada, Brazil, the Netherlands and Australia. It consisted of 297 contributors with severe persistent asthma requiring long acting beta as well as high-dose inhaled corticosteroids agonist. The objective was to measure the efficiency as well as protection against bronchial thermoplasty versus a pretended process of patients with severe asthma that remains symptomatic of curing with long acting or high dose corticosteroids beta agonists.

 

 Validity assessment: 1b. Study design:

This is a randomized double-blind fake-controlled test where contributors were allocated to a 2:1 ratio to obtain bronchial thermoplasty (N=190) or sham intervention (N=98). The following key inclusion criteria were used in the AIR2 trial: subjects on stable maintenance asthma medication for at least 4 weeks before entry, baseline Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire score of 6.25 or lower, pre-bronchodilator FEV1 >60% of predicted, hyperresponsiveness to methacholine challenge, at least two days of asthma symptoms of the 4-week baseline period plus being a nonsmoker for at least 1 year with less than 10-pack year smoking history. The following important barring standards were used: chronic sinus disease, concurrent respiratory diseases and Life-threatening asthma for example emphysema, more lower respiratory tract infections, use of immunosuppressant therapy, four or more pulses of oral corticosteroid use for asthma or more hospitalization for asthma, three and history in the previous year of three. The mean age of the patients in the bronchial thermoplasty group were 40.7 while the control group had a mean of 40.6. The percentage of males in the experimental and control group were 42.6% and 38.8%, respectively. In the experimental group, 79.5% identified as white, 10% identified as black and 10.5% identified as other. In the control group 73.5% identified as white, 15.3% identified as black and 11.2% identified as other. Asthmatx Inc., the company that designs, manufactures and markets the Alair® Bronchial Thermoplasty System, provided funding and the investigators also disclosed financial support (research grants, serving on advisory boards, speaker fees, and consultancy) from Asthmatx and other companies.

Study Conduct: All contributors were randomized in a 2:1 ratio to the bronchial thermoplasty group or sham groups according to a computer-generated scheme that stratified patient based by AQLQ scores, percentage of symptom free days and site and used minimization to ensure balance between both groups. Contributors continued their baseline medication with corticosteroids and long acting beta agonist and underwent three bronchoscopy procedures performed at three-week intervals. Contributors in the control group received the sham bronchial thermoplasty at the similar time intermissions as those cured along with bronchial thermoplasty. In the sham procedure contributors were administered the necessary medication required to maintain conscious sedation, the Alair catheter was deployed in the airway via a bronchoscope and a sham radiofrequency controller produced identical audio and visual signals without delivering any radiofrequency energy. The investigators matched the duration of the sham procedure to the active treatment. After the last bronchoscopy procedure, contributor was evaluated six weeks after the procedure, this was defined as the post treatment period. This post treatment period lasted from 6 to 52 weeks after and assessed patients at 3,6,9 and 12 months.  Of all the contributors that at least received a bronchoscopy, after 12 months, 9 experimental contributors and 1 control contributors were lost to follow-up but were all included in the final analysis on an intention to treat basis.

Study Results: Baseline AQLQ scores for the experimental group and sham group were 4.30(+ 1.17) and 4.32 (+ 1.21) respectively. After the 12-month follow-up the test informed similar variations on Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire scores of both groups; the bronchial thermoplasty group increased from 4.30(+ 1.17) to 5.66 (+ 1.06) while the sham group increased from 4.32(+ 1.21) to 5.48 (+ 1.15).  It was however distinguished which added extra contributors in the bronchial thermoplasty group showed the clinically significant improvement threshold of ­>0.5 in the AQLQ score when compared to the fake group. (78.9% vs 64.3%) On the ACQ scores baseline scores were 2.13(+0.87) in the bronchial thermoplasty group vs. 2.09 (+ 0.90) in the control group. After the 12-month follow-up, there was a change of -0.82 in the BT group and a change of -0.77 in the sham group therefore the changes of baseline were not statistically significant different from both groups. With respect to pulmonary function, there were no statistical differences in PEF rates and FEV1 scores when both groups were compared after 12 months.

Study Conclusions: The authors conclude that since a development from baseline in the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire scores was greater in the experimental group (79%) when compared to the sham groups (64%) the study demonstrated a clear effect of bronchial thermoplasty improving AQLQ scores over 12 months despite the significant increase of AQLQ scores in the sham controlled group. They stated that the development in a control group of patients with asthma could be predictable from just participating in the clinical test and attributed the development in the fake group of the regression effect. The authors believed that preconceived expectation of bronchial thermoplasty and the consideration given via the research staff was to be blamed for the placebo effect. They acknowledged that expectation of an upcoming research visit might had dedicated anticipations for both groups. Finally, the authors drew further attention to the percentages of improvement in both groups and conclude by stating that this improvement demonstrates the superiority over bronchial thermoplasty procedure of over the sham treatment. Study Quality Rating:

Table 1: Summary of Baseline Characteristics

 

RCT

 

RISA (Pavord, 2007)

 

 

AIR2 (Castro, 2010)

 

 

Design

 

 

Unblinded RCT

 

 

Sham-controlled RCT

 

 

Centers

 

 

8

U.K, Canada, Brazil

 

30

U.S, U.K, Canada, Brazil, Netherlands, Austria

 

 

 

 

Bronchial Thermoplasty

 

Control Group

 

 

Bronchial Thermoplasty

 

Control Group

 

Subjects:

 

15

 

 

17

 

 

190

 

 

98

 

 

Age:

 

 

39.1

 

 

42.1

 

 

40.7

 

 

40.6

 

 

FEV1

 

 

63%

 

 

66%

 

 

77.8%

 

 

79.7%

 

 

PEF L/M

 

 

355.9

 

350.4

 

383.8

 

386.3

 

AQLQ

 

 

3.96

 

4.72

 

4.30

 

4.32

 

ACQ

 

2.83

 

2.23

 

2.13

 

2.09

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Blinding

Adequate Timeline

Patient Account & Follow-up

Intention

To treat analysis

Power

Adequate

Level

Of

Evidence

Rating

RISA

I

A

A

A

M

1c

AIR2

A

A

A

A

A

1b

 

 

Table 2: Summary of validity assessment

 

 

A= Adequate M=Marginal I=Inadequate

 

 

Table 3: Summary of Study Results

 

RCT

 

RISA (Pavord, 2007)

 

 

AIR2 (Castro, 2010)

 

 

 

 

 

Bronchial Thermoplasty

 

Control Group

 

 

Bronchial Thermoplasty

 

Control Group

 

FEV1Pre    

 

 

“Not statistically significant between both groups”

 

“Not statistically significant between both groups”

 

76.6

 

79.1

 

PEF L/M

 

 

380.3*

 

359.1*

 

411.6

 

408.7

 

AQLQ Score Change

 

 

1.53

 

0.42

 

1.35

 

1.16

 

ACQ Score Change

 

-0.99

 

-0.22

 

-0.82

 

-0.77

*Reported only after Steroid Stable Phase of treatment: 22 weeks

 

DISCUSSION

 

The AQLQ and the ACQ score for both studies showed conflicting results. In the RISA trial, the bronchial thermoplasty group was treated with a lower dose of steroids after the steroid weaned phase but still showed improvement in these scores when compared with the control group. The AIR2 trial suggests a major placebo effect of the AQLQ scores of the sham group as it reported similar changes in both the bronchial thermoplasty and sham group. The AQLQ difference in 0.19 both groups of the AIR2 trial was also not statistically significant (P=2)14.  Additionally, the RISA trial observed improvements in ACQ scores in the bronchial thermoplasty group while the AIR2 trial showed no statistically significant differences between both groups. Neither the RISA nor AIR2 study observed statistically significant differences in pulmonary function tests.

 

In order to better to evaluate these results, it’s important to identify the limitation and strengths of both studies. Not only did the RISA trial observed a much smaller sample size (32) when compared to the AIR2 trial (288), blinding to the contributors was also inadequate as both the investigator and contributors were aware of whether they received bronchial thermoplasty or not. This likely resulted in high risk of bias in the performance of contributors and also assessment of outcomes.  Baseline demographics in the RISA study also limit the trial applicability to certain racial groups.

 

For example, 100% of patients in the RISA were identified as white, so the result might not be applicable to patients of other races especially when given that African Americans are three times more likely to die from asthma related illness15 and the fact that more African American women have died from asthma than any other group.16 Also, there was significant imbalance in the baseline statistics of both groups in the RISA trial. Give that the outcomes were AQLQ, ACQ, PEF and FEV1, Patients in the bronchial thermoplasty group had worse AQLQ (3.96 vs. 4.72 in control group), Worse ACQ (2.83 vs. 2.23 in control group) and worse FEV1 (62.9 vs. 66.4 in control group). In fact, the bronchial thermoplasty group also used their rescue bronchodilator more frequently (62.3 puffs per 7 days vs. 30.1 puffs per 7 days) than the control group. Due to the fact that the bronchial thermoplasty group had worse baseline symptoms there’s concern for additional bias and caution in the interpretation of the RISA trial results.

 

 With regard to allocation, the RISA used a computer generated randomization sequence method and provided sealed envelopes to each participating center. The AIR2 trial also used a computer generated randomization sequence but assigned patients in a 2:1 ratio based on baseline AQLQ score, symptom free days and site in order to allow for a better balance between both groups. Unfortunately, the trial failed to provide more information on how concealment of the randomization sequence was assured.

 

The RISA trial distinctly reported the number of subjects that were randomly assigned and also the number of subjects that withdrew from the study before receiving the bronchial thermoplasty intervention. In the AIR2 trial, only 9 subjects were lost to follow up in the experimental group and 1 lost to the control group the trial analyzed the results from an intention-to-treat basis by including these lost patients in the final analysis. Additionally, all outcomes described in both studies were reported although the RISA trial only reported PEF ratio after 22weeks and not on the 52nd week.

 

Overall, the quality of both studies ranged from grade 1c (RISA) to grade 1b (AIR2). Methods were sufficiently described in detail, stated primary outcomes were reported, both interventions were comparable and clearly defined and the intention-to-treat analysis was adequate.

 

CONCLUSION

In relation to the presented clinical question, “Is bronchial thermoplasty an effective therapeutic option in adults with severe persistent asthma?”  I believe that the answer is No. This review observed subjective and objective measures: Quality of life and Pulmonary Function. Both study unequivocally showed no significant benefit of the role of bronchial thermoplasty in improving the pulmonary function of patients with severe asthma. While the measures of quality of life were conflicting for both studies, it’s important to note that the study that endorsed improvement in quality of life had a lower quality of evidence rating. This study had a much lower sample size, patients were not adequately blinded, and there was also significant imbalance in baseline statistics with the bronchial thermoplasty group disproportionately having more symptomatic patients.  Also, unlike subjective components measured in both studies, objective measures like FEV1 and PEF are les susceptible to bias and they are unlikely to be influenced by heightened expectations of bronchial thermoplasty or attention provided by staff as suggested by the authors in a sham group. Hence the clinically insignificant changes noted FEV1 and PEF in both studies.

 

Additionally, the AIR2 trial the AQLQ developed through 1.16 +1.23 in the pretended group as well as through 1.35 +1.10 in the experimental group. Given that minimum improvement in 0.5 is considered to be clinical significant, this results to propose a big palliative result of the study deprived of a fake interference. While the authors were dismissive of the improvement in the sham group, focusing more on the results of the bronchial thermoplasty group does not show a realistic benefit of the treatment. One can also argue that the benefit seen in this group was likely due to improving medication adherence given that the contributors received a more structured care of their asthma.

 

Finally, more research on the mechanism of action of bronchial thermoplasty needs to be completed as a unique mechanism of action has yet to be formally identified17.  Also, Given that bronchial thermoplasty procedure is limited to visible areas accessible by bronchoscopy, the lower airways are left untreated. This may further to contribute to the lack of effectiveness seen since cumulative proof demonstrates that the small airways plays a big part in the clinical expression and severity of asthma.18 Finally, patients were not stratified based on the different phenotypes of asthma; this classification may help elucidate how asthmatic patients respond differently to treatment.19,20 the possibility remains that this may be a reason for our conflicting results in subjective measures in both studies. While the observed studies failed to confirm bronchial thermoplasty as an effective therapeutic option of severe asthma, better-designed studies using sham controls are needed to adequately assess the effectiveness of bronchial thermoplasty in patients with severe persistent asthma.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References:

1.         CDC. National Health interview survey (NHIS) data: 2011 lifetime and current asthma. In: Services UDoHaH, ed. Atlanta, GA: CDC; 2012.

2.         Chipps BE, Zeiger RS, Borish L, et al. Key findings and clinical implications from The Epidemiology and Natural History of Asthma: Outcomes and Treatment Regimens (TENOR) study. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. 2012;130(2):332-342.e310.

3.         Castro M, Musani AI, Mayse ML, Shargill NS. Bronchial thermoplasty: a novel technique in the treatment of severe asthma. Therapeutic advances in respiratory disease. 2010;4(2):101-116.

4.         Phillip M. Boiselle D, Lynch. CT of the Airways. 1 ed. New York, NY: Humana Press; 2008.

5.         Danek CJ, Lombard CM, Dungworth DL, et al. Reduction in airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine by the application of RF energy in dogs. Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985). 2004;97(5):1946-1953.

6.         Thakkar MS, von Groote-Bidlingmaier F, Bolliger CT. Recent advances in therapeutic bronchoscopy. Swiss medical weekly. 2012;142:w13591.

7.         Chung KF, Wenzel SE, Brozek JL, et al. International ERS/ATS guidelines on definition, evaluation and treatment of severe asthma. The European respiratory journal. 2014;43(2):343-373.

8.         Juniper EF, Guyatt GH, Epstein RS, Ferrie PJ, Jaeschke R, Hiller TK. Evaluation of impairment of health related quality of life in asthma: development of a questionnaire for use in clinical trials. Thorax. 1992;47(2):76-83.

9.         Juniper EF, O'Byrne PM, Guyatt GH, Ferrie PJ, King DR. Development and validation of a questionnaire to measure asthma control. The European respiratory journal. 1999;14(4):902-907.

10.       Wechsler ME, Laviolette M, Rubin AS, et al. Bronchial thermoplasty: Long-term safety and effectiveness in patients with severe persistent asthma. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. 2013;132(6):1295-1302.

11.       Cox G, Thomson NC, Rubin AS, et al. Asthma control during the year after bronchial thermoplasty. The New England journal of medicine. 2007;356(13):1327-1337.

12.       Pavord ID, Cox G, Thomson NC, et al. Safety and efficacy of bronchial thermoplasty in symptomatic, severe asthma. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. 2007;176(12):1185-1191.

13.       Castro M, Rubin AS, Laviolette M, et al. Effectiveness and safety of bronchial thermoplasty in the treatment of severe asthma: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled clinical trial. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. 2010;181(2):116-124.

14.       Bel EH, Zwinderman AH. Outcome reporting in asthma research. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. 2011;183(1):132; author reply 132.

15.       Heron M, Hoyert D, Murphy S, etc. CDC. National Vital Statistics Reports. Death: Final Data for 2006. 2009 April;57(14). http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr57/nvsr57_14.pdf. (Retrieved February 17 2017).

16.       CDC. National Center for Health Statistics. CDC Wonder On-line Database, 1999-2009. 2012. Series 20. No 20. http://wonder.cdc.gov/. (Retrieved February  17 2017).

17.       Dombret MC, Alagha K, Boulet LP, et al. Bronchial thermoplasty: a new therapeutic option for the treatment of severe, uncontrolled asthma in adults. European respiratory review : an official journal of the European Respiratory Society. 2014;23(134):510-518.

18.       van den Berge M, ten Hacken NH, van der Wiel E, Postma DS. Treatment of the bronchial tree from beginning to end: targeting small airway inflammation in asthma. Allergy. 2013;68(1):16-26.

19.       Fajt ML, Wenzel SE. Asthma phenotypes and the use of biologic medications in asthma and allergic disease: the next steps toward personalized care. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. 2015;135(2):299-310; quiz 311.

20.       Moore WC, Meyers DA, Wenzel SE, et al. Identification of asthma phenotypes using cluster analysis in the Severe Asthma Research Program. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. 2010;181(4):315-323.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Efficient market hypothesis (EMH) is a widely accepted theory that puts forth the belief that stock market is extremely efficient in reflecting data and information about individual scrips and the market as a whole. Generally it is believed that all information about a particular stock spreads quickly, and the same is incorporated into the stock price without delay. Thus, neither fundamental analysis (analysis of company financials such as company earnings, net profitability, etc.) nor technical analysis (the study of past stock prices) helps investors to select undervalued stocks to earn higher returns in contrast to investing in a self selected portfolio of individual scrips with almost similar risks.

The theory presents itself in three basic formats: weak form, semi-strong form and strong form.

 The Weak form EMH implies that market is capable of incorporating all market information. The fundamental analysis here can provide investors with information to produce above average market returns in the short run. Due to lack of any set patterns, fundamental analysis cannot provide any long-term advantage or forecasting opportunities and technical analysis shall not work. With these assumptions, the weak form of EMH asserts that any rules based on fundamental or technical analysis cannot help the trader to buy or sell any particular stock.

Semi-strong form of EMH implies that neither of the forms of analysis (fundamental analysis and technical analysis) can be beneficial for an investor and that new information is quickly adjusted into the securities price. Only the information that is not readily available to the public can help investors increase their return, and they cannot benefit by speculating on the new information.

The Strong form of EMH advocates that all the information irrespective of their availability incorporates itself into the stock, and there is a complete lack of any information that can give the investors any leverage on the market.

The stock price movement of Qantas for two days reflects that after the disclosure of annual reports investors have actively traded in the stock. The volume of transaction proves that after the material revelation the average trading for this stock almost doubled itself which is an indication of investors profit booking. The next day transaction volume reflects that the firm is back in resuming its normal course of action. As the disclosure of annual reports forms a part of fundamental analysis, the average investor can only benefit from the stock in the long run based on the available information. The opening stock prices of Qantas on 24th August were adjusted with the disclosures of annual reports and showed the investors reaction on the annual reports.

The performance of Qantas over the three-day period reflects the weak form of the efficient market hypothesis. Here the average investor seems to benefit from the fundamental analysis for the short run. Due to the absence of any technical analysis in this form the common investor has been able to leverage the information about the annual reports and performed better than the average market by selling their holdings.

References:

QAN.AX Historical Prices | QANTAS FPO Stock - Yahoo! India Finance. (2016). In.finance.yahoo.com. Retrieved 20 September 2016, from https://in.finance.yahoo.com/q/hp?s=QAN.AX&a=07&b=23&c=2016&d=07&e=25&f=2016&g=d

Timmermann, A. & Granger, C. (2004). Efficient market hypothesis and forecasting. International Journal Of Forecasting, 20(1), 15-27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0169-2070(03)00012-8



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Nursing Questions

1.What are the presenting issues for the client?

   There are two patients in the case. The first one is short tempered and acts fast thinking of the consequences later. He is also addicted to marijuana and is currently in youth training in Australia away from his family. The other one is a mother who is an alcoholic and takes marijuana resulting from a case of domestic violence.

2. How do you respond to the client based on the presenting issues?

   Based on their presenting issues I would respond to the clients by booking a session alone with the, try to use a language that will not anger them, and tell them that I care about their addiction and I would like to work together to stop it (Johnson,  2011).

3.  What services could be engaged to provide support to the client?

 To help the clients stop addiction I will offer services like guidance and counseling, referral to support services, harm reduction, and outreach services.  This can help the patients feel at ease and feel the need to live with people without causing any, harm to them (Benton, 2012).

4. Looking at the client’s whole life, what is the impact of their current situation on their entire life?

Looking for this client, the current situation has made their life miserable and feel that they do not belong with other people; thus, it has made them always feel that  they are better off alone and taking drugs to ease the stress  (Benton, 2012).

5. How would you build effective working relationships with the client and identified support services?

In this case, I would build an effective relationship between these clients and the identified support services by talking to the heads of the service to understand the client’s situation and to handle them with care. I will try to make the clients like the support center by talking good things about it (Potts & Mandleco, 2012).

6.   How would you provide information and discuss relevant service options with the client to establish and implement a successful recovery plan? Include what would be discussed.

 I will offer the addiction information and resources on various treatment centers and programs where to start a process of recovery. If the addicts are ready, I will take them to a facility for rehabilitation on the spot. If they are not willing, I will let them leave the intervention because it is not advisable to force them to begin a program for recovery against their will but will maintain close contact (Samuels & O'Boyle, 2013).

7. How would you work collaboratively with the client to implement the plan?

 I would work collaboratively by being continuously involved in the recovery process by visiting or sending care packages. If they are in a center and engage the family program sessions this will help them see how much they value and love them (Buttaro, 2013).

8. How do you promote empowerment with the client throughout the development, implementation, and review of the plan?

   I will ensure that I involve the clients in the recovery plan by asking for their ideas, suggestions, and opinion and including them in the plan. This will be a way of making them feel part of the plan as well as encouraging their participation (Johnson, 2011).

9.  How do you work proactively to identify potential risks to safety to client, worker and others?

 To identify potential risks and safety of the client and others involved, I will ensure that the places we meet are safe, and there are no health hazards posed. In addition to this, I will ensure that in such places there aren’t objects that the client who has a temper can use to harm anyone drugs and alcohol will be out of range to avoid temptations (Samuels & O'Boyle, 2013).

10. What legal and ethical consideration would you include when working with the client?

The legal and ethical considerations to focus on while handling these clients will involve respect to their privacy, maintain confidentiality and ensure that there is the integrity of the highest order (Samuels & O'Boyle, 2013).

11. What information would you share with colleagues and other relevant parties?

 The information I will share with the clients and other parties involved includes the situation of the clients, progress, strategies employed and the target set (Buttaro, 2013).

12. How would you communicate relevant information to colleagues and other key stakeholders working with the client?

 Relevant information to colleagues and other stakeholders will be communicated by sharing the information via our page in social media, sending them e-mail updates and also giving them the hard copy of the reports on progress (Samuels & O'Boyle, 2013).  

13. How would you ensure self-care when working with the client?

Self-care will be enhanced by trying to make them comfortable emotionally, spiritually and physically and taking all the required measures.

 

References

Benton, D (2012). Advocating Globally to Shape Policy and Strengthen Nursing’s            Influence. OJIN: The             Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 17(1).

Buttaro, T. (2013). Primary care : a collaborative practice. St. Louis, Mo: Elsevier/Mosby.

Johnson, B. (2011). Addiction medicine: science and practice. New York, NY London: Springer.

Potts, N. L., & Mandleco, B. L. (2012). Pediatric nursing: Caring for children and their    families. Clifton Park, NY: Delmar Cengage Learning

Samuels, H. C., & O'Boyle, J. (2013). Alive again: Recovering from alcoholism and drug addiction. Hoboken, New Jersey:Wiley


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​​According to IFRS, the estimated costs of dismantling, removing or restoring items of assets like plant and equipment entail the costs associated with dismantling. This also involves management of the costs in terms of dislocating the assets while restring the site on which it is located is obligatory to be included in the cost of the item of property, plant and equipment.

 

Cost of major inspections – Such kind of costs are involved in the management of the cost of inspection while including the carrying amount of property, plant and equipment as the replacement, if recognition criteria are satisfied and any remaining carrying amount of the cost of preceding inspection is de-recognized. There is a need to include these costs within the management of the work parameters.

 

Identification of Fixed Assets – There is needed to recognize the fixed assets in terms of the management of the purpose of being used in respect of producing or providing goods or services and is not held for sale in the normal course of business. However an enterprise may decide to record as an expense an item which could otherwise have been included in fixed asset, because the amount of the expenditure is not material.

 

Major spare parts – Whereas the Spare parts may be recognized as Property, Plant and Equipment [PPE] if the same meets the criteria/definition of PPE. Otherwise such items are classified as inventory.

 

Costs to be capitalized–the cost to be directly attributable may be capitalized only till the asset is capable of use in the manner intended by company. Therefore, when an asset is purchased or constructed and becomes operative in the manner immediately, costs incurred whilst the asset is standing idle may not be capitalized.

Depreciation – PPE are depreciated separately and there is no concept of minimum statutory depreciation.

 

Compensation for impairment – in the event of compensation from other parties for impairment/loss of items of property, plant and equipment then the same to be included in profit or loss when the compensation becomes receivable.

 

Reassessment of useful life and depreciation method – It requires annual revision of useful life of property, plant and equipment and depreciation method.

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A Business Report

Work Design Pilot at CERA

Student Name

Course Title

Professor Name

University Name

September 29, 2016



Table of Contents

Executive Summary. 3

Purpose. 3

INTRODUCTION.. 4

JOB DESIGN TO SUPPORT INNOVATIVE BEHAVIOUR.. 5

THEORETICAL MODEL OF JOB DESIGN, LEARNING STRATEGIES AND INNOVATION   7

PROBLEM DEMANDS AND JOB DESIGN CONTROL WILL BE POSITIVELY ASSOCIATED WITH COGNITIVE AND BEHAVIORAL WORK BASED LEARNING STRATEGIES. 8

EFFECTS OF JOB DESIGN ON WORK-BASED LEARNING STRATEGIES. 8

EFFECTS OF WORK-BASED LEARNING STRATEGIES ON INNOVATION.. 9

COGNITIVE AND BEHAVIORAL WORK-BASED LEARNING STRATEGIES WILL BE POSITIVELY ASSOCIATED WITH EMPLOYEE IDEA GENERATION.. 10

Method. 10

Participant and Procedure. 10

Measures. 11

Job Design. 11

THE MEDIATING ROLE OF WORK-BASED LEARNING STRATEGIES IN JOB DESIGN FOR INNOVATION BEHAVIOR.. 11

INNOVATION PROCESS IN JOB DESIGN.. 12

RECOMMENDATIONS. 13

CONCLUSION.. 13

References. 15


A Business Report

WORK DESIGN PILOT AT CERA

Executive Summary
Purpose

The main purpose of the business research report is to survey whether employee knowledgeand innovatively in understanding approaches is a mechanism by means ofwhich job design impacts the employee innovation behavior and innovation. Specifically, we examine whether work-based learning procedures intervene the relationship between job design attributes (problem demand and job control) and key segments of the innovation procedure (thought advancement, idea generation and thought execution). Structural condition demonstrating affirmed the intervening part of learning techniques in the relationship between idea generation and job design. The impacts of job control on thought period were intervened by work-based learning procedures and the impacts of issue interest on thought era were in part interceded by work-based learning methodologies. Issue request additionally had an immediate association with thought generation and thought advancement. The findings of the business research work give backing and support to the general thought that employee learning is a component intensive which job design influences results. Information were gathered from a review of about 327 representatives in an assembling based association and related enterprises. The aftereffects of the study show specialists that making jobs with high control or high issue interest can advance the representative innovation process; and this is halfway because of the part that such jobs play in stimulating the utilization of learning methodologies at work. This article tests and develops aninnovativehypothetical model that elucidates how learning and additional approachesand other methodsare the route through which job design impacts employee innovation in the CERA workplace environment. Hence, this report aims to provide the advices to you to learn how job design imparts behavior innovation.



INTRODUCTION

We venture out and partake an initial step to investigate how CERA authoritative elements impact individual entrepreneurial behavior at work, by exploring the part of job design variables. Job design research has looked to set up the instruments through which work attributes influence representative results, for example, execution and prosperity. Worker learning has been proposed as one such system. The essential reason of the employment outline learning instrument is that job attributes invigorate the learning procedure. This prompts the obtaining of learning about the job and its setting, empowering the worker to perform all the more viably and to adapt better to request. An extra advantage of the employee having the capacity to adapt better to request is a change in prosperity. Reliable with this perspective, thinks about have discovered backing for the job design learning system in connection to two worker results, task or job design and execution, and prosperity (Parker & D. Wall, 1998).

A further element of exploration at work plan learning instrument is that studies have regularly utilized intermediary measures of adapting, for example, aptitude usage and self-viability, or surveyed learning utilizing measures of information change. Research around there has yet to concentrate on how representatives learn, i.e., the learning procedure. We accordingly know minimal about how work outline shapes the learning procedure or how the learning procedure influences the relationship between job configuration and worker results. Subsequently, we concentrate on work-based learning techniques, a key part of the learning procedure. These systems are the subjective and behavioral practices that representatives use to procure and sort out information at work. Given these holes in the present writing at work design–learning instrument, the fundamental point of this article is to look at whether representative learning techniques is a component through which work outline influences worker advancement. To meet this point, a hypothetical model of the relationship between job plan, work-based learning procedures, and worker advancement is produced and tried (Tsai, 2011).

This job design model advances our hypothetical comprehension of the course through which job design influences representative innovation, and our comprehension of the job design learning component, by incorporating a scope of differing viewpoints (e.g., activity hypothesis, self-direction learning hypothesis, and speculations of imagination and advancement) so as to clarify how job qualities impact the learning procedure (i.e., learning systems) and how the learning procedure shapes workforce innovation. Notwithstanding this hypothetical commitment, the article is the first to test the relationship between job design and learning procedures and the first to test the job design learning component in connection to innovation. The article hence gives new bits of knowledge into how job design shapes the procedures of learning and advancement at job or workplace environment. The study is additionally of reasonable significance as it demonstrates the sorts of job attributes that may cultivate worker learning and advancement; and highlights the learning methodologies that are advantageous for representatives to utilize for job design to support employee's behavior innovation (Holman, et al., 2011).

JOB DESIGN TO SUPPORT INNOVATIVE BEHAVIOUR

The job design knowledge mechanism has nevertheless to be recognized in relative to employee behavior innovation, the individual-level procedure by which innovative ideas are promoted, generated, and implemented inside organization like CERA. It is significant to recognize that job design marks employee behavior innovation through its impact on learning for the reason that, if correct, it determines a way through which employee behavior innovation can be refined. Associations may in this way have the capacity to advance worker innovation by joining viable job designs with mediations to upgrade present employee's learning. It is additionally essential to know the course through which job design influences representative learning and behavior advancement on the grounds that, if the causal pathways that lead to worker performance are like those that advance worker prosperity and performance (for example, a job design learning system), then associations might have the capacity to accomplish numerous helpful results by focusing assets and mediations on enhancing their regular predecessors (Fahr, 2011).

Reassuringly, there is experimental confirmation to recommend that worker learning may be a component through which job design influences workforce or staff innovation. This is on account of studies have demonstrated that job design attributes, for example, work control, are related specifically with representative discovering that worker learning is related straightforwardly with advancement and that job qualities are related straightforwardly with representative innovation. Nonetheless, from these studies, it can't be derived specifically that worker behavior is a component through which job design influences representative advancement (Sonnentag & Kleine, 2000). For instance, examines concentrating on worker learning and innovation may have found a relationship due to a typical however unmeasured forerunner, i.e., work plan. This implies representative learning may not be a forerunner of advancement or a course through which job design impacts behavior innovation. Current concentrates in this way educate us small regarding the exact path in which job design influences learning and advancement all the while. Thus, this article concentrates on whether learning is a component through which job design influences behavior innovation (Shukla, Shailendra, & Singh, 2014).

THEORETICAL MODEL OF JOB DESIGN, LEARNING STRATEGIES AND INNOVATION

Fig. 1 Theoretical model of job design, behavior innovation, learning strategies and results of the analysis for innovation behavior

Source: (Holman, et al., 2011, p. 3)

THEORY AND HYPOTHESES: THE JOB DESIGN- LEARNING MECHANISM AND EMPLOYEE INNOVATION

Opinions for a job designknowledge mechanism emphasize that learning is a mechanism over which job design mark employee behaviour consequences. Specified the concentration of this article, our hypotheticalexplanation of a job design knowledge mechanism in relative to innovation wants to elucidate how job characteristics influence work-based knowledge strategies, and how work-based knowledge strategies mark innovation. We established out this theoretical explanationunderneath and our model can be perceived in Figure 1 as shown above (Taris T. W., 2005).

PROBLEM DEMANDS AND JOB DESIGN CONTROL WILL BE POSITIVELY ASSOCIATED WITH COGNITIVE AND BEHAVIORAL WORK BASED LEARNING STRATEGIES
EFFECTS OF JOB DESIGN ON WORK-BASED LEARNING STRATEGIES

 

The initial segment of our hypothetical model of the job design learning system suggests that issue requests and job control will empower the utilization of work-based job design learning techniques. One clarification for the impacts of issue requests on learning systems is that assignment issues keep workers from achieving objectives, for example, successful task or work execution. Accordingly, representatives will be spurred to send methodologies that can possibly help objective fulfilment and critical thinking, for example, work-based learning techniques (De Spiegelaere, Stan, Guy, De Witte, & Hootegem, 2014).

Another clarification for the impacts of issue interest on learning techniques draws on job challenge requests. Job challenge requests are characterized as requests that are assessed as having the capacity to advance self-improvement and accomplishment; and in view of this positive evaluation, challenge requests trigger issue cantered adapting methodologies, for example, expanded exertion (i.e., inspiration) and endeavours to get learning and new practices. Challenge requests incorporate workload, job scope, assignment trouble, duty, and subjective requests (Lee, 2016).

Job control may advance the utilization of work-based learning systems in two ways. In the first place, work control increments inherent assignment inspiration and inspiration to realize which prompts representatives to enhance undertaking comprehension and dominance. Undertaking comprehension can be helped by the utilization of behavioural and intellectual learning systems, as they are one method for procuring errand information and enhancing it by arranging new data inside existing patterns or into new job designs. In this manner, when job control is high, employees or staff will be more spurred to utilize work-based learning techniques (Wall, 1992). Second, job design or control gives the chance to representatives to choose the best reaction to a specific sort of interest. One reaction to assignment issues is to embrace a critical thinking approach which, as we have proposed, can be supported by learning techniques. Elective reactions incorporate expanding errand exertion, forsaking the undertaking, or embracing another objective. Yet, these option reactions don't address the underlying driver of the errand trouble and might be less powerful over the long haul than a critical thinking approach. Generally speaking, high job control is in this manner liable to spur and give the chance to utilize work-based learning systems (Bond & Flaxman, , 2006).

 

EFFECTS OF WORK-BASED LEARNING STRATEGIES ON INNOVATION

In the second a portion of our hypothetical model of the job design–learning component, we recommend that work-based learning procedures influence advancement. Our thinking for this suggestion has two stages. In the initial step, learning techniques advance information securing about the job undertaking and setting. With respect to intellectual learning methodologies, double process models of comprehension place that purposeful, deliberate, and logical methods of insight invigorate the learning of new realities and rules and the association of information. Subjective learning systems can be thought to be a case of purposeful and deliberate methods of intuition in which time and exertion is spent thinking on a theme. All things considered, intellectual learning techniques are liable to advance learning procurement as they empower the representative to expand on new data by inspecting the ramifications of new data in the light of existing learning, to compose new data inside existing patterns and to recognize key issues and standards. Behavioural learning methodologies will likewise empower the representative to get information from associates, from composed material and through the down to environment use of thoughts. For instance, a representative may look to get data by going online or by asking a more experienced partner. In outline, both the behavioural and subjective work-based learning systems are liable to empower representatives to expand and enhance their insight into the job undertaking, assignment issues, and the employment setting (Rao, 2007).

COGNITIVE AND BEHAVIORAL WORK-BASED LEARNING STRATEGIES WILL BE POSITIVELY ASSOCIATED WITH EMPLOYEE IDEA GENERATION
Method
Participant and Procedure

Information were gotten from a US-based vehicle maker organization for advice. The aggregate specimen was 327, speaking to an 80% reaction rate. Eighty-nine percent of the specimen were shop floor representatives occupied with collecting, manufacture and painting of vehicles, of whom 51% were machine agents and 38% were talented exchange agents, e.g., welders. Two percent were administrators and 9% performed other managerial parts. All representatives had the chance to take part in the innovation procedure through, for instance, interest in a constant change program. The normal age was 37 years and 97% were male. Workers were enlisted through presentations given by individuals from the exploration group. Information were gathered utilizing a poll study regulated nearby. No financial motivations were given for investment (De Spiegelaere, Stan, Guy, De Witte, & Hootegem, 2014).

Measures
Job Design
The two job design measures, job control and issue requests, utilized things from the scales created. Job control was a three-thing measure that evaluated the degree to which workers have circumspection over strategies utilized. An example thing is "Would you be able to choose how to approach completing your job?" The inside consistency (Cronbach's a) was 0.83. Issue interest was a three thing measure for job design. A specimen thing is ''Are you required to manage issues which are hard to fathom?'' and Cronbach's a was 0.86. For both variables, a five-point reaction scale was utilized (1 = not a considerable measure to 5 = an incredible arrangement) (Holman, et al., 2011).

 

THE MEDIATING ROLE OF WORK-BASED LEARNING STRATEGIES IN JOB DESIGN FOR INNOVATION BEHAVIOR

We have contended that job qualities impact work-based learning systems, and that job-based learning methodologies influence three parts of the representative innovation process. At the end of the day, work-based learning methodologies are an instrument through which job qualities influence thought era, thought advancement, and thought usage. Up 'til now, no observational proof exists to bolster ajob design– learning instrument in connection to the innovation procedure. Be that as it may, proof makes exist for a showing with regards to job design–learning instrument in connection to errand execution and prosperity. For instance, Wall et al. (1992) demonstrated that expanded control for administrators of new innovation brought about enhanced machine uptime, halfway as a consequence of a prompt speedier reaction to issues and, in the more extended term, by issue avoidance, which is a marker of information advancement. Wall and Holman (2002) found that the relationship between worker prosperity and job design was intervened by ability usage, an intermediary measure of learning. Given the hypothetical and experimental proof for a job design–learning system, the accompanying two speculations are set.

INNOVATION PROCESS IN JOB DESIGN

As our hypothetical model indicated three separate parts of advancement, we needed to build up a measure that recognized them. Different measures just cover a predetermined number of segments (e.g., thought era, thought era and proposal making) or are a solitary worldwide measure that consolidates separate segments (Taris & Schreurs, 2009).

To build up a job innovation measure, three things on each of the three parts of advancement (thought era, thought advancement, and thought job execution) were created by two of the creators and their face legitimacy checked by other University research staff and a senior chief from the study association. For everything respondents were asked the degree to which they had done this inside the most recent year. A five-point reaction scale was utilized (1 = not a considerable measure to 5 = an incredible arrangement). To research the joined and discriminant factorial legitimacy of the proposed three-component job design structure, we proposed to utilize Mplus to direct a corroborative element examination on the full example and looked at this against a two-element and one-element model.

Table 1. Showing Correlations, means, and standard deviations for the main study variables of job design factors for workplace innovation behaviour

Source: (Holman, et al., 2011)

RECOMMENDATIONS

In this study, we concentrated on the learning speculation of the Karasek model. This learning theory recommends that a blend of levels of popularity and high job control will prompt high inspiration and new learning practices. As built up, this learning speculation can be deciphered as a consolidated, added substance impact; or as a connection impact in which the mix of time weight and self-governance would bring about an optional impact on the result. As innovation is focal in the present talk on the best way to keep the organizations focused and prosperous, the individual inventive commitment of representatives must be animated. The meta-investigation of Hammond et al. (2011) focused on the focal part of job design in clarifying representative creativity. However the writing on the connection between worker innovativeness is constrained. All things considered the attention is for the most part on individual impacts and infrequently considers the mind boggling connection of various job attributes on worker results. Utilizing information from a multi-level data-set of representatives settled in associations, this article utilizes the conventional Job Demands-Control model of Karasek and Theorell's (1990) and its learning theory to concentrate on the connection between imaginative work behavior, job design and work engagement (Aryee, Hartnell , Zhou, & Walumbwa, 2012).

CONCLUSION

For both Innovative Work Behavior (IWB), work engagement and job design is recognized as an essential component. In their meta-investigation, we throughout research and even observed the job design to be most vital element for clarifying workforce behavior innovativeness. In the work engagement writing, an omnipresent measure of studies incorporate job design in their models. In these analysis and research hypothesizes, the investigation much of the time considers joint impacts of job qualities. This is not the situation in the worker advancement writing. In spite of the fact that job attributes have been under sensible consideration, the emphasis prevalent lay on the impacts of single job qualities on results, for example, IWB. This paper concentrates on the impact of job design on Innovative Job Behavior (IWB) in a pilot of the well-known "Job Demands-Control" or (JD-C) model of Theorell and Karasek in the year, 1990. The emphasis is basically on purported 'taking in theories of the Karasek model which accept that the blend of levels of popularity and job control will bring about drew in and inventive staff. In doing as such, this paper adds to the writing in a few ways. To start with, it answers to incessant calls to perform more multi-level exploration in authoritative behaviorresearch by considering the organization impact on individual results. This is astounding as the job design writing itself to a great extent focuses on the significance of consolidated impacts (cooperation impacts) of job qualities. Why do representatives take part in imaginative behavior at their working environments? We analyze how representatives' innovativebehavior is clarified by desires for such behavior to influence work performance and innovation (expected positive execution results) and picture inside their associations (expected depiction threats and expected representation decisions up). Hence, we have further discovered critical impacts of each of the three result needs on innovativebehavior within the workplace by considering the need of job design. These result desires, as middle mental procedures, were formed by logical and individual contrast components, including saw association support for advancement, boss relationship quality, and job necessity for behavior innovation employeedisrepute as innovative, and individual dissatisfaction with business as usual.



References

Aryee, S., Hartnell , C., Zhou, Q., & Walumbwa, F. (2012). Transformational leadership, innovative behavior, and task performance: Test of mediation and moderation processes. Human Performance , 1-25.

Bond, F. W., & Flaxman, , P. (2006). The ability of psychological flexibility and job control to predict learning, job performance and mental health. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 113-130.

De Spiegelaere, Stan, Guy, V. G., De Witte, H., & Hootegem, V. (2014). Job Design, Work Engagement and Innovative Work Behavior: A Multi-Level Study on Karasek's Learning Hypothesis. Management Revue.

Fahr, R. (2011). Job Design and Job Satisfaction - Empirical Evidence for Germany? Management Revue.

Holman, D., Totterdell, P., Stride, C., Port, R., Axtell , C., & Zibarras, L. (2011). Job Design and the Employee Innovation Process: The Mediating Role of Learning Strategies. Springer Science+Business Media LLC , 2-13.

Lee, L. (2016, January 22). Should Employees Design Their Own Jobs? Retrieved from stanford: https://www.gsb.stanford.edu/insights/should-employees-design-their-own-jobs

Parker, S., & D. Wall, T. (1998). Job and Work Design: Organizing Work to Promote Well-Being and Effectiveness. SAGE Publications.

Rao. (2007). Human Resources Management: Text and Cases. Excel books.

Shukla, Shailendra, & Singh, A. (2014). Employee Involvement & Flexible Role Orientation: A Moderated Mediated Model. Indian Journal of Industrial Relations,.

Sonnentag, S., & Kleine, B. (2000). Deliberate practice at work: study with insurance agents. Journal of Organisational and Jobal Psychology, 87-102.

Taris, T. W. (2005). Job demands, job control strain and learning behaviour: Review and research agenda. In A. S. Antoniou & C. L. Cooper (Eds.), Research companion to organizational health psychology, 132-150.

Taris, T. W., & Schreurs, P. (2009). Explaining worker strain and learning: how important are emotional job demands? . Anxiety, Stress and Coping, 245-262.

Tsai, Y. (2011). Relationship between Organizational Culture, Leadership Behavior and Job Satisfaction. BMC Health Services Research.

Wall, T. D. (1992). Operator work design and robotics system behavior: A serendipitous field study. Journal of Applied Psychology, 353-362.

Yuan, F. (2010). Innovative Behavior in the Workplace: The Role of Performance and Image outcome expectations. Academy of Management Journal, 323-342.

 I can do your assignments, projects and academic papers. This is my Skype ID: sabir.shah74
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I have done more than 1000 projects in the last three years. I'm very good in doing different kinds of projects and for academic writing I can provide you Turnitin report as well.

Here are some of  my projects which I have done So far.


 
Frenchys Patisserie

Name

Professor

Course

Date

 
Part A

369 Little Collins Street is a busy street that leads to the central business district. The street is usually congested for the better part of the morning and evenings. The street is also usually filled with people during lunch hours as most of the workers within the CBD scramble to look for something to feed their bellies during lunch hours. Geographically the location of the business of Paul Dubet is strategically located. That is because it is located on a busy street with all walks of people passing through the street every minute. It is therefore expected that the site and the location of the business is going to lead into a lot of sales. Besides the street closer to the business location is Avenue Park. Avenue Park is a resting place with lots of benches where people can rest and also talk privately. In addition, the street also leads to the busy CBD. Most of the customers around the place will usually buy their products as early as 7 am in the morning and take their coffee in the office. The business is planning to open as early as 7 am and that is likely to cater for that segment of customers. In addition, there is also that segment of consumers that will also want to talk over business in the park or visit the park just to get away from the office environment. Such people will also be tempted to buy pastries and coffee as they walk over the park. There is also that group of consumers who will be walking over the street for the first time. They will also be encouraged and tempted to try the French Pastries and coffee especially during the early hours of the morning. A close study of the demographic region also indicate that most of the university students within the CBD will also find their way to the park and get a grab of their fast foods. Psychometric information within the Australian employees also indicate that most of the workers within the CBD will not take heavy meals during lunch hours and hence will prefer coffee or pastries. The French are also well known for their French fries and Pastries(Belch & Belch, 2011). It must also be understood that the names and the food products originated in France. For that purpose the name Frenchys Patisserie is likely to attract and lure most of the consumers who believe that the French are the best cooks for such products. In addition, Paul Dubet is also a French with five year experience.  That is also expected to be a motivating factor for consumer behavior. In addition, the female segment of the consumers is also known for their love for fast foods especially French fries. That is also expected to increase sales and revenues for the start up(Pelsmacker, 2014).

The products which include French Pastries, coffee, fruit juice and other soft drinks are more convenient for office work especially since the business is located in the CBD. However, it must be noted that there is a lot of competition within the CBD for similar services. Some of the most competitive brands include McDonalds and KFC most of which have branches within the CBD. In addition, there are also residence living within the CBD who also depend on such services offered by Paul. It is believed that children will also provide a better alternative market. Since this the business is going to be a start up without a strong brand name compared to that of McDonalds and KFC it is expected that competition is likely to be vigorous. The strategy is to keep the prices low and affordable for the consumers as a way of acquiring the market share(Fill, Hughes, & De Francesco, 2014).

With that in mind the choice of advertisement is likely to be branding of the shop. Use of brochures for the first two days of the inception will be very necessary. The brochures will be delivered to all the offices within he CBD and Paul can therefore ensure that he provides outside catering. Orders will be made online through the website of the business. Deliveries will be done upon request. Social media sites like Facebook and Twitter will also be provided in the brochures to enable the consumers make suggestions request deliveries as well. Online payments will be done and sales on delivery would also be done through the smartcards if available(Belch G. E., 2013). The aim is to make sales as flexible and possible and also to have quick returns considering that the business is dealing with fast food.

The first one week will require somebody to deliver the brochures to all the offices in the CBD. That is the most effective way of attracting consumers. The production cost is also not expensive. The average production cost for the brochures will be $200 and a further $330 for distribution having acquired the environmental licenses that must be acquired before distributing such advertisement within the CBD. A billboard will also be required even though it is a bit expensive mode of advertisement. The billboard will require $750 from the council authorities and it is expected to stay for one month. Creation of a website is necessary as bills and payments are expected to be done online for most of the consumers who will be requiring the outside catering services. However, for the one stop consumers sales through cash will be encouraged. Advertisement through the social media is never expensive. It is usually free since opening of such groups is usually free. For that reason, social platform groups like Twitter and Facebook will be encouraged especially at the inception of the business. The business will also require to brand its shop and the selected colors orange, brown, and white will be expected to feature in all the advertisements including the website. The advertisement is not going to have many words apart from the name of the business in addition to the services offered. Contacts and means of communication will also be included in the advertisements. According to the Advertisement Act of 2013 small business promises like that of Paul are exempted from taxation and that will ensure that Paul conducts his advertisement in a free and fair way.

From the advertising media it is evident that the advertising regulation must be considered. The Australian Consumer Law that was introduced in 1st January 2011 requires that advertisements avoid unfair practices. The advertising regulator requires that the adverts should not contain any misleading or deceptive information and representations in form consumer guarantees and testimonials. In addition, the regulator also requires that the adverts should not contain any unconscionable conduct especially with regard the country of origin. That has to do with prescribed logos and certifications of trademarks.

Part B

The media vehicles necessary for this start up as already discussed will include billboards, brochures, social media and the internet. Brochures have always worked very well to inform the audience about the products or the services offered by the seller. They have the advantage of one on one communication with the intended audience. Moreover, brochures can also disseminate the information very fast within a short period especially within the CBD. The brochures can also be moved from one place to another hence making the dissemination of information very fast. Even though the brochures are nonverbal but the advantage is that its mobility can help spread the news and information very fast and far from the center of origin(Belch & Belch, 2011). The billboards have also the advantage of dissemination of the information. However, it has the disadvantage that it is immobile and hence only people passing through the billboard will get the information. Billboards are also expensive considering that they are nonverbal. The internet is a good vehicle for advertising since most of the businesses are done online. In addition, the internet also provides faster and efficient means of conducting business. That will be through the website of the business. In addition, the consumers will be able to order and pay for their meals through the net. That will help keep data as well as monitor the trend of the business. The information from the website of the business will help the business to strategically plan for the business. The social platform also provides the business with a better means of advertising. Most of the adverts done through the social media are free of charge. In addition, the rate at which information is disseminated in the social media is very fast. Moreover, Paul is able to get immediate feedback regarding the operations of the business giving Paul the ability to strengthen the strengths of the business and work on the shortcomings of the startup.

Paul believes that having a man handing leaflets for the first two days will be a better alternative that other forms of advertisement. I agree with that information and the suggestion. Handling of leaflets and brochures will ensure that the information reach the passersby and all the people living within the CBD as well as the workers around the place. The cost of using that mode of advertisement will not be so high in comparison to other alternatives like using roadshows and other modes of advertisement(Belch & Belch, 2011).

The leaflets and brochures will be necessary for the target audience and consumers who are passerby and residence in addition to the flock of people working within the CBD. Leaflets are also cheaper means of communication. In addition, it allows for one on one contact with the target audience hence making it easy for the consumers to make suggestions and ask questions. That has the advantage of getting immediate feedback something that can help the business in planning. Leaflets and brochure distribution within the CBD requires one or two days. The frequency of distribution is therefore going to be so high and so will be the information to the intended audience within the business. Leaflets and brochures have the ability to meet the creative requirements for the advertisements. That is because they can be produced in several sizes and can therefore be squeezed within the small budget of the startup. Besides that the social media platform has the advantage of a higher frequency with very minimal costs. In addition, the social media platform can run for so many days as long as the business is operational. The social media platform can always advertise daily menus for the customers and that will help encourage good customer relations hence increasing profits. The legal requirements for the leaflets include the need to obtain a license to distribute the leaflets within the CBD. The aim is always to ensure that the posters do not leave the environment dirty. The material used should also be biodegradable. The information within the brochures and leaflets should also adhere to the Australian Consumer Law.

Part C

In order to completely satisfy the consumers the media schedule is expected to take 3 months. That will ensure that the consumers are well aware of the startup plus the necessary products and services offered by the business.

 

Month 1

Month 2

Month 3

Media Vehicle

Week 1

Week 2

Week 3

Week 4

Week 5

Week 1

Week 2

Week 3

Week 4

Week 5

Week 1

Week 2

Week 3

Week 4

Week 5

Leaflets and Brochures

And Billboard

News about the business Start-up and services offered

The services offered by the business

News about the business Start-up and services offered

Social Media Platform

Invitation of people in the group

Campaign for people who have tried the business to give their feedback

Invitation of members to the group

Services offered by the business

Request for online shopping and outside catering services

Invitation of members to the group

Request for online shopping and outside catering services

News about the business Start-up and services offered
Invitation of members to the group

Media Budget

Media Vehicle

Advertising period

Cost

(per period)

Billboard

One month

$750

Leaflets and Brochures

One month

$1200

Business Website

Monthly

 $500

Licenses

Three Months

$2700

Social Media Platform

Monthly

$200

Total

$5350


Bibliography

Belch, G. E. (2013). Advertising and promotion: An integrated marketing communications perspective (9th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Euan, J.

Belch, M., & Belch, G. (2011). Advertising and Promotion: An Integrated Marketing Communications Perspective. New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.

Fill, C., Hughes, G., & De Francesco, S. (2014). Advertising: Strategy, Creativity and Media. New York: Pearson.

Pelsmacker, P. (2014). Marketing Communications: A European Perspective. Essex. New York: Financial Times / Prentice Hall.

I can do your assignments, projects and academic papers. This is my Skype ID: sabir.shah74 and this is my Email: sabirshah4545@gmail.com  I have done more than 1000 projects in the last three years. I'm very good in doing different kinds of projects and for academic writing I can provide you Turnitin report as well.  Here are some of  my projects which I have done So far.

                                                  

Case study

Insert Name

Institution


The pathophysiology of Mr. Jensen’s post-operative hypovolemia

Mr. Jensen’s post-operative hypovolemia state is caused by the excessive bleeding common with fracture patients in the aftermath of fracture fixation. The pathophysiological process of Jensen’s post-operative state is comprehensive. First, hypovolemia is a condition whereby a patient’s level of blood reduces with a constant level of haemoglobin concentration. The excessive loss of blood led to the hypovolemia, which is also associated with a decrease in cardiac output and venous oxygen tension. According to Dunning (2014), the normal blood pressure of a person is 120/80 mm Hg. However, Jensen’s post-operative blood pressure was 104/55mm. This is a reflection of the substantial decrease of blood volume in the body due to hypovolemia. Additionally, the right leg was too cool to touch because of the reduction in the blood, which usually helps in thermoregulation. The hemorrhage experienced by Jensen culminated in a reduction in cardiac output. Additionally, the post-operative bleeding led to the impairment of the supply of oxygen to body tissues. In this regard, the oxygen utilization process is vital to underscore the impact of hypovolemia in Jensen. The total oxygen delivery is subject to the cardiac index and the arterial oxygen content. According to Schrier (2010), arterial oxygen content is subject to the hemoglobin concentration in blood and hemoglobin oxygen saturation (Sao2). Additionally, the arterial oxygen content is also subject to the partial pressure of oxygen in the arterial blood. In Jensen’s case, the hemoglobin oxygen concentration is normal at 95% because a normal hemoglobin oxygen concentration for an adult is (95-100) %. This is a clear indication of the condition of hypovolemia, whereby the hemoglobin concentration in blood is constant as the blood volume decreases. In a normal setting, the body’s systemic oxygen consumption is almost equal to the metabolic rate of an individual.

In Jensen’s case, the blood loss deprived the body of energy and, led to the inadequate exchange of energy between the body tissues and the blood. The hypovolemia state of the patient led to the change in the increases of the fraction of inspired oxygen. The rate had to be maintained at a minimum of 6L/hr because of the state of the patient. The fact that Jensen was losing high volumes of blood meant that an ideal nasal canula had to be used to enhance high rate of inhalation to boost metabolism. In fact, the patient’s post-operative assessment reveals that the FiO2 rate was 6L/hr, which is an acceptable rate. However, there is need for use of a better nasal canula, which could boost the amount of oxygen inhaled. The canula used should also be designed in a way that carbon dioxide is not retained and inhaled. There is need for the improvement of the fraction of inspired oxygen. Therefore, the cardiac output leads to a substantial decrease in the supply of oxygen to various body tissues especially muscle tissues. The capillaries are left open leading to a failure to maintain the optimum tissue oxygen flux. Eventually there is a failure by the mitochondria to sustain the aerobic metabolism in the body.

In Wittenberg (2015) asserts that the normal urine output is (0.5-1) ml/kg/hr. Jensen’s is 1ml/kg/hr. This indicates that the urine output of the patient is on the high limit. Urinal output is closely relayed with the body’s metabolic rate. The high urine output is attributed to the reduction in blood in the body, which has increased the utilization of the low level of blood in performance of extra tasks. The low blood led to the reduction in blood pressure. The patient’s body temperature is 37.90C. The normal range of body temperature is (36.1-37.2) 0C. Therefore, Jensen’s body temperature is abnormally high because of the hypovolemia shock and increased rate of metabolism. The increased rate of metabolism is natural response of the body to a detection of low energy level in the body. However, there is frustration of such body process because the medium of energy is apparently inadequate. The infusion of fluids is vital, in this case, to enhance adequate nutrients in the body.

Hartman’s solution running at 125mls/hr via triple lumen central line situated in the right internal jugular is a manifestation of the Jensen’s need of mineral and nutrient. Such a solution is the best for a person who has undergone a fracture fixation. The solution is usually concentrated with minerals and nutrients. Jensen was also a diabetes-2 patient and was under medication. The patient’s glucose is also at 17.1mmol/L. However, the normal glucose level for a healthy adult is 11.1mmol/L. The post-operative glucose result indicates that Jensen has a high blood sugar level. The high blood sugar level is an indication of low insulin level or resistance of the patient’s insulin. For this reason, Jensen has type-2 diabetes hence the need for infusion of Insulin and dextrose infusion running at 2mls/hr (2 units/hr). Jensen’s pain level is at 7. The pain level is considerably high hence the need for administration of sedatives like morphine. According to Fraser, Brown, Forster and Brown (2014), morphine creates a barrier between the brain and blood. Consequently, the brain cannot receive the pain signals from the fractured area.

Prioritization of Jensen’s problems

Mr. Jensen’s severe pain should be attended to, by the physician before anything else because Jensen’s pain is at extreme level. Pain management of the patient should be prioritized because it will enhance the cooperation of the patient in treatment of their aspects. The hypovolemia problem should be resolved through infusion of blood of a blood group matching the patient’s blood group. However, the administration of Hartman’s solution should be maintained to enhance the patient’s stability. A low level of blood is risky because of the critical role of blood in the body’s physiological processes especially metabolism (Braun and Anderson, 2013). Additionally, the blood will enhance Jensen’s stability through the supply of energy to various body tissues. Adequate blood will stabilize the blood pressure of Jensen, which has dropped to a low level of 104/55mm. The infusion of blood for Jensen will help in the resilience of the patient’s heart beat rate, fraction of inspired oxygen, blood pressure and the body temperature. The normalization of the variables will enhance the recuperation of the patient in due time. The blood infusion is also critical compared to all other medical measures to be taken because Jensen will die if blood goes below a certain threshold. Death will render all other medical procedures null.

The reduction of the high glucose level in blood will also be vital because of the disturbance it causes in the physiology of the body. Lewis and Foley (2014) assert that the dysfunction of the insulin compromises the functioning of the kidney. Additionally, the body’s nutrient reserve is inadequate. The reduction of blood sugar is vital to prevent the formation of ketones. Additionally, there reduction of sugar reduces the restlessness associated with high glucose level in blood. Confusion is also prevented when the blood sugar level is reduced. The formation of ketones leads to the swelling of the brain and oedema. According to Kosova, Bergmark and Piazza (2015), the high blood sugar level will also lead to micro-vascular and macro-vascular diseases in the long-run. It can also lead to death in extreme cases.  The other problem of concern is the treatment of the fracture site, which is oozing with serous. The treatment will avoid the infection of the wound with germs. Additionally, the inflammation of the right leg will be reduced through the application of appropriate drugs.


Nursing goals

The pain problem of Jensen will require a pain relieving drug to ensure that the patient is at ease. The pain reliever will also enable the patient to cooperate in the subsequent treatments. According to Crossan and  Cole (2013), morphine cannot be used in pain management for a person who has a renal complication given that he was diagnose with diabetes mellitus in the past two years. The problem of hypovolemia will be resolved through a continuous intake of the Hartman’s solution and his blood group transfusion. The intake of Hartman’s solution ensures that he attains his normal blood level, which will lead to resilience in other variables including blood pressure and body temperature, metabolic rate and heart-beat rate (Atlee, 2012). The high glucose level will be resolved through the infusion of insulin to ensure that the extra glucose is converted into glycogen for storage in the liver for future use. The serous oozing will be stopped through cleaning of the body part and application of appropriate drug. The inflammation of the right leg will be reduced after the blood transfusion. The swelling was caused by the opening of the capillaries.

Literature review

According to Rejeski et al. (2012), the extracellular fluid volume deficiency problem can be eliminated through the continuous intake of the Hartman’s solution. The intake of the solution will compensate an individual for the loss of fluid after an operation. Additionally, it is important to have a plan on subsequent fluid intake. The individual suffering of hypovolemia must be conscious of his situation to ensure body hydration at all time. A personal initiative is crucial because of the need for quick regaining of the normal fluid level. The aspect of hypovolemia requires the patient’s preferred drink, which helps in the boosting of body fluid. The favorite drink will enhance adequate intake of the fluids hence quick recovery. The other measure, which can enhance the achievement of adequate body fluid, is the oxygenation through the use of the nasal canals, which prevent inhalation and retention of carbon dioxide (Allen, 2012). Additionally, the there is need for a good ventilation to enhance adequate oxygenation.

A balanced diet will also helps in quick recuperation from the hypovolemia state. The most reliable remedy to achieve normal body fluid is the infusion of hypertonic saline solution.  The frequent intake of water is also vital to achieve a normal fluid level within the body. The   replacement fluids contain sodium lactate, which is similar to the extracellular fluid (Rodbard et al., 2010). There are few adverse effects of replacement fluids to the patients especially the post-operative cases. However, when the replacement fluid is used the volume administer must be triple the blood lost because just a third f the fluid remain within the cells. Sodium lactate is vital because it also helps in the hydration process. Hartman’s solution has lactate, which contains a bicarbonate precursor (Ding,   He, &  Xiao, 2013). However, the lactate never results in acidosis given that the solution also contains the sodium ion.

According to  Patil et al.(2012), the normal blood sugar level can be achieved through the infusion of insulin. Additionally, self-monitoring of the eating of sugary foods is also vital. Self-monitoring is the ultimate solution to high blood sugar level because it is important it enhances consciousness of the hyperglycemia state. The consciousness also serves as psychotherapy for the patients because they understand their situation. The adherence to insulin regimes is also vital because overdose has side-effects. The problem of hyperglycemia can be caused by several factors hence it is important for the patient to seek medical advice before taking of the insulin regimens (Perrier et al, 2013). Medical advice is vital because it makes the patient certain of the case of the high blood sugar. The cooperation between a doctor and the patient in the treatment of diabetes is vital.

According to Inzucchi, Bergenstal & Buse (2012), the monitoring of the blood glucose is vital because it guarantees early control of the diabetes. Exercise is also vital in achievement of normal glucose levels. Exercise leads to burning of excessive calories in blood. The continuous monitoring of the blood sugar level is also vital because it can easily lead to the detection of ketones in blood. When the blood glucose level exceeds 240mg/dl the patient must be having ketones in blood (Australian Diabetes Educators Association, 2016). Therefore, exercise is also limited in such cases. When a person excesses while having ketones in blood, the blood sugar level also increases exacerbating the hyperglycemia. The dietician is required for a person with high blood sugar level.  The dietician will provide reliable guidance on the foods to take in order to achieve normal level of glucose in blood.

References

 Patil, H.R,  Al Badarin, F.J.,   Hamza, M.D. &  Al Shami, A. (2012).  Meta-Analysis of

            Effect of Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors on Cardiovascular Risk in Type 2 Diabetes

            Mellitus, The American Journal of Cardiology, Vol. 110(6), p.826–833. Retrieved from:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0002914912013446

Rodbard, H.,  Jellinger, P., Davidson, J., Einhorn, D. & Garber, A. (2010). Statement by an

            American Association of Clinical  Endocrinologists/American College of Endocrinology

            Consensus Panel on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: An Algorithm for Glycemic Control.

            Endocrine Practice: Vol. 15(6), p.540-559. Retrieved from:

http://journals.aace.com/doi/abs/10.4158/EP.15.6.540

Australian Diabetes Educators Association (ADEA). (2016). Diabetes Care, p.1-5. Retrieved from:

https://www.adea.com.au/about-us/our-publications/

Rejeski, W.J., Ip, E.H., Bertoni, A.G., Bray,  G.A. & Evans,  G.(2012). Lifestyle Change and
            Mobility in Obese Adults with Type 2 Diabetes, Nursing England Journal of  Medicine,
            V ol.366(1), p.1209-1217.
            Retrieved from:

http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/nejmoa1110294#t=article

Allen, D.B. (2012). A Clinical Trial to Maintain Glycemic Control in Youth with Type 2

            Diabetes, Nursing England  Journal of Medicine, Vol.366(1), p.2247-2256. Retrieved        from:

http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/Nejmoa1109333#t=article

Inzucchi, S.E., Bergenstal, R.M. &  Buse, J.B. (2012). Management of Hyperglycemia in Type 2

            Diabetes: A Patient-Centered Approach, Nursing England  Journal of Medicine,

            35(6): 1364-1379. Retrieved from:

http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/35/6/1364.short

Lena, M.S. (2012). Bariatric Surgery and Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes in Swedish Obese
            Subjects, Nursing England  Journal of Medicine ,Vol.367(1), p.695-704. Retrieved from:

http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/nejmoa1112082#t=article

Inzucchi, S.E., Bergenstal, R.M., Buse, J.B. & Diamant, M. (2012). Management of

            hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetes: a patient-centred approach. Position statement of the

            American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of

            Diabetes (EASD),  Diabetologia, Vol. 55(6), p.1577–1596. Retrieved from:

http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00125-012-2534-0

Perrier, E.,  Rondeau, P.,  Poupin, M. & Le Bellego, L.(2013). Body composition, energy
            expenditure and physical activity: Relation between urinary hydration biomarkers and
            total fluid intake in healthy adults, European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol.67,
            p.939–943. Retrieved from:

http://www.nature.com/ejcn/journal/v67/n9/abs/ejcn201393a.html

Ding, L.,   He, Z.&  Xiao, H. (2013). Risk Factors for Postoperative Wound Complications of

            Calcaneal Fractures Following Plate Fixation, The Official Journal of the AOFAS,

            2013 vol. 34 no. 9 1238-1244. Retrieved from:

http://fai.sagepub.com/content/34/9/1238.short

Kosova, E.,  Bergmark, B. and Piazza, G. (2015).Fat Embolism Syndrome, Circulation, p.1-5.

            Retrieved from:

http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/131/3/317.short

Crossan, L.&  Cole, E. (2013). Nursing challenges with a severely injured patient in critical care,
            Vol.18(5), p.236–24. Retrieved from:

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/nicc.12019/full

Braun, C. A., & Anderson, C. M. (2013). Pathophysiology: Functional alterations in human

            health. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Atlee, J. L. (2012). Complications in anesthesia. Philadelphia: Elsevier/Saunders.

Brown, D., Edwards, H. Seaton, L. & Buckley, T. (Eds). (2014). Lewis's medical-surgical

            nursing: Assessment and management of clinical problems (4th ed.). Marrickville:

            Mosby.

Fraser, J., Brown, D., Forster, E & Brown, N. (2014). Paediatric Nursing in Australia:

            Principles for practice. Cambridge University Press: Melbourne.

Lewis, P.A., & Foley, D. (eds) (2014). Health Assessment in Nursing e2. Broadway, N.S.W.:

            Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.

In Wittenberg, E. (2015). Textbook of palliative care communication. Philadelphia, PA:

            Elsevier/Saunders.

Schrier, R. W. (2010). Diseases of the kidney & urinary tract. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters

            Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Dunning, T. (2014). Care of people with diabetes: A manual of nursing practice. Chichester,

            West Sussex: Wiley Blackwell.

I can do your assignments, projects and academic papers can do your assignments, projects and academic papers. This is my Skype ID: sabir.shah74 and this is my Email: sabirshah4545@gmail.com  I have done more than 1000 projects in the last three years. I'm very good in doing different kinds of projects and for academic writing I can provide you Turnitin report as well.  Here are some of  my projects which I have done So far.


 
Title Auditing

Name

Institution



Table of Contents

1.0 Part A: Audit planning. 3

1.1 Preliminary judgement of materiality. 3

1.2 Analytical review and qualitative considerations. 4

1.3 Five accounts selected and rationales. 5

2.0 Part B: Sample selection. 6

2.1 Explanation/demonstration of sampling technique. 6

2.2 Benefits of selected sampling technique. 7

3.0 Part C: Considerations in substantive testing and collecting audit evidence. 7

3.1 Question 1. 7

3.2 Question 2. 8

3.3 Question 3. 8

3.4 Question 4. 8

3.5 Question 5. 8

3.6 Question 6. 9

3.6.1 6a. 9

3.6.2 6b. 9

3.6.3 6c. 9

3.7 Question 7. 9

References. 9


1.0 Part A: Audit planning


1.1 Preliminary judgement of materiality

ASA 320 provides that Misstatement and omissions are material where they could influencethe decisions of users taken on the basis of the financials.Revenue is a critical measure for the business survival and growth. It is selected as the materiality base for the Income statement transactions. Since the variation from last year is only $ 3,752 being 3.8 % of last year’s sales and less than 5%, we set the materiality level for income and expenses at 6% being the lowest tolerance limit for materiality level. Inventory is a critical measure for the business survival and growth. Itis selected as the materiality base for the Balance Sheet transactions. Since the item form 39% and the highest proportion of the total assets of the business, we set the materiality level for assets and liabilities at 9%, being the upper tolerance limit for materiality level.

Qualitative factors to be considered include:

• Inherent risks of family business where ownership and control are vested in one person.

• Risk of the management engagement in fraudulent reporting.

• Inherent risks of credit sales and their recoverability.

• Absence of internal control and internal Audit.

• Inherent risks in Cash Sales like theft or fraud.

 

1.2 Analytical review and qualitative considerations
 

Category

Ratio

Formula

2015

2014

Efficiency

Inventory turnover

Sales/ Average inventory

            1.15

            0.99

Profitability

Cost of sales ratio

Cost of sales /sales

            0.26

            0.34

Liquidity

Current ratio

Current Assets/Current Liabilities

            1.92

            1.81

Efficiency

PPE turnover

Net sales/Average PPE

            3.10

            2.88

Solvency

Debt to equity

Debt/Shareholders equity

            1.41

            1.49

Analytical procedures need to comply with ASA 520.


Accumulated depreciation Machinery

The significant difference; $ 21,666,in the accumulated depreciation for both the years may increase the audit control risk with respect to the machinery such that the internal control procedures may fail to identify fraud regarding depreciation, repairs and maintenance also affected by management discretion as a whole or at the account levels. As per ASA 315 Para 130,management intervention is also an instance of the existence of a possibility of material misstatement. (AUASB, 2016).PPE turnover has improved in the past year 2015 as per ratio analysis from 2.88 to 3.10 implying better asset utilization per unit of sales.


Wages

Wages being an inherent High risk account due to the nature and volume of transactions involved. It is important to verify the existence of strong internal controls so as to reduce overall audit risk by reducing the control and detection risk. The wages for the part year 2015 are lower than 2014 by $ 6184 being 13.2 % lower than last year. The difference may be inferred to the 2-month timing difference of the financials for both the years.

 
Cost of Sales

The area is prone to significant audit risk due to the risk of failure to record transactions and distorted favourable solvency and liquidity position so as to impress investors, customers and lenders. Interestingly, while the sales have increased, the COS has reduced by $ 10,324 being about 10.5 % of current year sales.The difference may be inferred to the 2-month timing difference of the financials for both the years.Cost of Sales has improved in the past year 2015 as per ratio analysis from 0.34 to 0.26 implying less cost for each dollar of sale.

 
Sales

This area is prone to significant audit risk due to the absence of the provision or allowance of doubtful debts. The dependence of the system on completion of processing makes it prone to inherent risk.  The key assertion at risk is regarding the correctness, accuracy, classification disclosure of sales as bifurcated into cash sales and credit sales. The sales have increased by $ 14,065 over last year being about 7.5 % of last year sales.


Inventory

The key assertion at risk regarding inventory is the existence of an adequate internal control in respect to the security, valuation and disclosure of all purchase and Inventory transactions. Thereby Inventory forms about 39% of the total assets (189000/484571). Inventory turnover has improved in the past year 2015 as per ratio analysis from 0.99 to 1.15 implying better sales for each dollar of inventory.The current ratio has improved in the past year 2015 from 1.81 to 1.92 implying better liquidity in the short term.Debt equity has improved in the past year 2015 from 1.49 to 1.41 implying less reliance on external finance and better solvency due to better risk and asset ownership profile. (Www4.semo.edu, 2016)


1.3 Five accounts selected and rationales

The rationale behind the selection of all the five accounts in 1.2 is the result of the analytical procedures done above.
 
2.0 Part B: Sample selection
2.1 Explanation/demonstration of sampling technique

Sales Account

Sample selected using simple manual random sampling technique

10/7/2015 SJ Accounts Receivable Cr 8,000
20/11/2015 SJ Accounts Receivable Cr 8,035
19/02/2016 SJ Accounts Receivable Cr 6,200
08/04/2016 SJ Accounts Receivable Cr 7,985
30/04/2016 GJ Cost of Sales Dr 10,000

The above mentioned transactions were selected using the random sampling technique.therationalebehind the selection was to conduct an effective audit such that each transaction of the sales account population had an equal chance of selection. The entire process was accomplished in a single step and each transaction was selected independently of the other.

Each transaction of the sales account population was assigned a unique number. Each uniquenumber were picked for the purpose of testing. Since the sample size was not very large,the computer-aided random selection was not preferred. To make sure that the process remained free form bias of the user, the selection was made on the basis of numbers assigned to the transactions rather than taking a glimpse of the transaction before making the selection. The GL extract was used to select the sample as instructed. As demonstrated by the selected transactions, one can easily discern that the selected sample is fair and fit for the purpose of substantiate testing purposes.

The audit objective is to test the transactions to ensure the correctness, accuracy, classification and disclosure of sales as bifurcated into cash sales and credit sales to reduce audit risk to a tolerable level. The materiality level is 6 % as set out earlier in the audit planning process. The size of the sample is 5 transactions as instructed.The main aim of the sample selection was to reduce the sampling risk to an acceptable level as the sample risk bears an inverse relationship with the sample size. These 5 transactions were selected at random to achieve the above mentioned objective.

ASA 530 suggests Random,Systematic and Haphazardtechniques. The rationale for selecting the random technique was the general regard given to it as the best method of of sample selection for statistical evaluationof theresults.

2.2 Benefits of selected sampling technique

The main benefit of the random selection was the simplicity of sample selection. Every transaction had a fair chance of selection from the account population as every item in the account had equal opportunity of being chosen.

The sample could easily be regarded as being representative of the account population due to the equal probability of selection. Where this is not the case, the random variation is often termed as the sampling error , rendering the whole exercise futile. This happens when bias enters the selection process. No complicated processes of division or sub division are involved

The unbiased selection and the representative benefit are very important to reach conclusions on the audit testing at the account as well as overall level. The main aim of the whole exercise was to draw conclusions on the population based on the results obtained from substantiate testing of the sample. (Explorable.com, 2016)

These benefits are in stark contrast to the criticism of the systematic technique which often results in sampling error where the population follows a fixed pattern and bias enters the sampling process. This would also have been the case in the sales revenue sample selection explained above as the transactions are following a fixed pattern in terms of amount and account credited.

The haphazard technique would have selected the samplewithout a structure and is used only when the population is not ordered numerically. Also, the technique suffers from the limitation of being prone to the bias avoiding the first or last entry in a ledger and the difficulty in locating items.

3.0 Part C: Considerations in substantive testing and collecting audit evidence
3.1 Question 1

The reason for adopting a predominantly substantive approach in Part B was  to obtain reasonable assurance that the sales account account balance is not materially misstated and ensure the correctness, accuracy, classification and  disclosure of sales as bifurcated into cash sales and credit sales to reduce audit risk to a tolerable level as per ASA 315 on Identifying and Assessing the Risks of Material Misstatement through Understanding the Entity and its Environment and ASA 330 the Auditor’s Responses to Assessed Risks.

3.2 Question 2

The assertionthat seems to be more important for the sales account used in Part B would be ensuring completeness of the transactions from the source to the financials of the company with a well-defined audit trail. The occurrence assertion would rather be tested using analytical review procedures in the audit process.

3.3 Question 3

For the purpose of the sales revenue account, vouching would be preferable as it would ensure a check on the accuracy of the transactions with documentary evidence. Tracing is normally resorted to for balance sheet accounts to ensure the correctness, validity and completeness of the transactions.(S, 2015)
 
3.4 Question 4

Another important assertion is the cut off of the transactions to ensure that they were recorded in the correct reporting period.

3.5 Question 5

To ensure that the cut off for the sales revenue account was properly ensured; a sample of sales invoices, receipts and shipping documents ought to be verified before and after year-end for the transactions near about that date.

3.6 Question 6
3.6.1 6a

The misstatement is not acceptable aswe set the materiality level for income and expenses at 6% being the lowest tolerance limit for materiality level which allows a tolerable misstatement level of $ 6,150 being 6% of the current year sales.

3.6.2 6b

The magnitude of the misstatement is not relevant for tests of control or substantive testing as we set the materiality level for income and expenses at 6% being the lowest tolerance limit for materiality level which allows a tolerable misstatement level of $ 6150 being 6% of the current year sales.

3.6.3 6c

Other information required for projecting the results to the entire account balance would be the result obtained from the analytical review procedures.

3.7 Question 7

A part year trial balance could be used in cases of first audits or where due to natural disasters,calamities, climatic disturbances oraccidents, the records and accounts were destroyed. However, in such cases the auditor ought to qualify the report mentioning the fact as well as increase his substantiate and analytical procedures to reduce inherent risk, control risk and overall detection risk to minimum level.

References

Auasb.gov.au, (2015). [online] Available at: http://www.auasb.gov.au/admin/file/content102/c3/Nov13_Compiled_Auditing_Standard_ASA_315.pdf [Accessed 13 Dec. 2015].

Auasb.gov.au, (2015). [online] Available at: http://www.auasb.gov.au/admin/file/content102/c3/ASA_520_28-04-06.pdf [Accessed 13 Dec. 2015].

Explorable.com. (2016).Random Sampling. [online] Available at: https://explorable.com/simple-random-sampling [Accessed 20 Sep. 2016].

S, S. (2015).Difference Between Vouching and Verification (with Comparison Chart) - Key Differences. [online] Key Differences. Available at: http://keydifferences.com/difference-between-vouching-and-verification.html#ixzz4KoSQjR3p [Accessed 20 Sep. 2016].

Www4.semo.edu. (2016).New Page 2. [online] Available at: http://www4.semo.edu/gjohnson/notes/Materiality.htm [Accessed 20 Sep. 2016].

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Accounting Theory and Current Issues

Student’s Name

University Affiliation


Table of Contents

Abstract 3

Management Summary. 3

Introduction. 4

The Nature and Value to Society of the Research. 4

Problems with Early Research at BSF. 5

Nature and Differences between Research and Development 7

Fair Market Value of the Patent 8

Journal Entries for R&D.. 9

BSF’s Exclusive Control over the Technology. 10

 
Abstract

            Businesses today face new challenges in accounting that require the application of modern approaches. There have been numerous cases of corporate collapses related to fraud which all emerge from accounting issues. The question of corporate sustainability has also been frequently raised by concerned entities (Iannou&Serafeim, 2014). Ethical practices in corporate affairs have become an emerging issue too. Overall, there is more external attention to businesses today than before and much of this attention focuses on accounting. This paper evaluates the situation at Bio-sustainable feeds from an accounting perspective. It looks at some of the emerging issues in accounting that affect the company. It also looks at research and development aspects in the company’s business strategies.

Management Summary

            Accounting series provides a useful set of methodologies that are used in researching and reporting financial aspects of a business. The theories provide a qualitative guidance to research and formulation of business strategies to meet defined objectives. These theories are relevant in addressing emerging issues in accounting in today’s businesses. Modern companies have to deal with emerging issues such as corporate collapses, sustainability, fraud, uncertainty among investors and transparency. Although most of these issues can be defined using traditional accounting theories, modern approaches are required to efficiently strategies businesses while considering them (Adeyemi& Hunt, 2014). Market expectations need to be appropriately defined otherwise they will not be met. Intangible assets such as patents are also playing an important role in modern businesses. In addition, modern companies need to find the right balance between financial and non-financial performance measures.

Introduction

Research undertaken by Bio-sustainable feeds are multifaceted with regard to its objectives. Previous feed formula produced by the company had proven to raise many challenges. The efficiency of the fish-based feed was not only very low, but it also raised ethical questions since the ingredients used were human food. The latter formula that was plant-based was even more inefficient with a conversion ratio of 30 kg of feed to 1kg of fish. Undoubtedly, such inefficiency in production was bound to raise concerns from many quarters (Lothe, 2013). It was also likely to affect the profitability of the venture. There was need to find a solution for this issue that raised numerous problems.

The Nature and Value to Society of the Research

One of the expected outcomes of the research is a solution to the ethical concern of using human food to produce luxury fish. Environmentalists would argue that such a practice is unethical because it is likely to put pressure on the demand for food and consequently cause shortages (CBC, 2016). In a world where some 800 million people do not have enough food, such a practice would be seen as insensitive. Businesses have the de facto duty to minimize harm they cause to stakeholders and communities. Hence, the fish-based feed that BSF produced was absolutely in contrary to this responsibility. Moreover, it would be ironical for BSF to carry out corporate social responsibility while still using human food to produce fish.

The research was also aimed at attaining sustainability in BSFs production. Production of higher-value fish required a lot of raw material that it was unlikely to sustain itself in the future. Global demand for food constantly rises as the world’s population grows. As such, it is conceivable that with the inefficient feed formula, raw materials would become unsustainably expensive at some point in the future (Lang &Barling, 2012). This would cause BSF to seize operations.

In addition, the latest research by BSF would generate huge revenues for the company. The new research will enable production of fish feed from abundantly available raw material – wood chips, sugar cane residue and recaptured methane. This solution would address all the concerns that evolved from previous feed formula. Raw materials that will be used in formulating the new feed are not human food. Furthermore, BSF would reap enormous benefits from the expected patent of the technology.

These solutions will add value to society through two means: reducing the environmental footprint and increased opportunities for local communities to supply raw material. The proposed feed will completely cut the pressure on demand for fish, thus making more of it available to communities for nutrition. Communities cannot compete against corporate organizationsfor the same materials; they simply do not have the resources (Bocken et al., 2014). The research will also add value to society by providing more opportunities to communities to cultivate the raw material. This would empower them economically.

Problems with Early Research at BSF

One of the likely problems with the previous research conducted by BSF is the apparent absence of a cost-benefit evaluation. Every project must undertake a cost-benefit analysis to determine the value of the output so that an informed decision on the investment can be made.A cost benefit analysis is an objective evaluation of the costs versus the benefits of an investment. It is not simply a question of which is greater between the costs and the benefits. Depending on the objectives of the organization, the benefits should outdo the costs by a determined minimum threshold. For instance, the company could define their benefits threshold as double the costs. If the estimated benefits are anything less than twice the cost, the project would be abandoned. BSF lost $120 million from the research did not yield the expected results. It is however important to acknowledge that not every research will be successful. The challenge with this analysis is the difficulty in valuing intangible costs or benefits such as the resultant environmental damage. In such a situation, modern accounting approaches would become very useful.

It seems that BSF did not also conduct an environmental impact assessment before commencing the previous researches. It is only later that environmentalists protested the use of human-quality food crops in the production of luxury fish. The significance of such protests against a company is immense. It could attract pressure from civil society groups that would eventually stifle the company’s operations. A proper environmental impact assessment needs to be conducted for projects that involve significant interaction with the environment such as BSF’s previous researches.

Non involvement of stakeholders is equally a likely error that BSF committed in the previous researches. Stakeholder analysis is not a task that can be ignoredwhen rolling out initiatives with impactful outcomes. The results of the previous research were expected to impact the business and customers. However, it is improbable that the impact on the local communities was evaluated. Involvement of the relevant stakeholders can avoid emerging conflicts between the business and stakeholders.

A similarly impactful problem that might have occurred with the previous researches is the probable omission of risk assessment. A risk assessment identifies possible risks and develops countermeasures against them. Developing a risk register will not necessarily prevent risks from occurring, butit gives a better chance of recovery. The failure without remedy of the research implies that there was a low level of preparation for risks.The research could also have been implemented in phases to limit the losses that would have to be borne in case of failure.

Nature and Differences between Research and Development

Research and development are two complimentary areas in business development. Although distinguishing them may be difficult, they remain distinct aspects of business development. Their combined objective is to innovate, introduce and improve processes, products or services. It is an imperative undertaking in modern companies. Today, companies are faced with numerous challenges such that those who do not continuously invest in research and development might not be able to keep up with the challenges.R&D facilitates improvement of processes to access new markets and improve revenues. It is an activity that specifically focuses on the product or process. R&D does not include market research and consumer-end parameters.

The primary difference between research and development is that research is an initial process that leads to development.Research may involve the initial stages of planning and scientific study of a process or product aiming at establishing some truth. The approach may integrate both basic and applied research methodologies. Once the truths have established, the development process kicks in. Development is mostly the implementation and testing of the facts established during the research stage. Both stages have to be conducted together since neither of them is an independent undertaking.

Accounting for R&D costs is done differently. Both research and development have at least one main similarity: there is great uncertainty over their future benefits. For this reason, it is not easy to count expenditures as assets. Research costs are normally accounted as costs incurred while development costs are carried forward.Defining costs as other costs incurred or assets forms the main basis of differentiation between accounting for research and accounting for development. This difference is important in facilitating a more accurate estimation of the costs and benefits of the process. As previously noted, evaluating the benefits against the costs of a project is essential in determining if the venture is worth undertaking.

Fair Market Value of the Patent

Patents are intangible assets and their valuation follows the principles of valuating intangible assets. Valuating a patent is a rigorous process since its value is a very important factor in future trades involving it. Varying approaches may be used to value a patent and as such, one valuation cannot be similar to another. Some common quantitative approaches to valuating patents include basing its value of development costs, market-value estimations and expected incomes. A qualitative approach may be a more holistic approach encompassing both financial and non-financial considerations (Johnson & Higgins, 2014).The suitability of the approach taken to value a patent greatly depends on many factors, including the nature of the patent and the scope of the targeted market.

The patent is expected to raise $700 million AUD if sold in two years. Using the discounted cash flow, the current value of the patent would be:

Present value = Future Value/ (1+i)n

Present value = $700 million AUD/ (1+0.08)2(Adjusted to two years)

Present value = $600.14 million AUD

From this present value of the patent, it fair market value can be evaluated using the cost-based method since cost information is readily available. This approach holds that there exists a proportional relationship between the costs incurred in research and development of the patent and its economic value. Cost estimation is obtained by determining what it would cost to develop a similar patent in the present time. Historical costs are not relevant because the patient usually takes a long time to research and develop. As such, costs that were incurred in the past may be several times higher today if the time value of money is considered.In the case of the bacteria research, it may take seven years to reach a conclusion. Hence, labor and material costs incurred seven years ago cannot be the same today (Delaney, Rich & Rose, 2016).To give a fair value to the patientthe costs must consider the present value of a similar solution.

Journal Entries for R&D

 

Debit (millions)

Credit (millions)

Notification of grant award

 
Cash

500

 Receivable

 
500

Expenses incurred


Cash

500

Payable


500

Patent sale


Cash


Receivable

700


The CSIRO grant is treated as an actual resource. It is therefore recorded as an income. The income approach is used to categorize the funds so that they can be paired with expected expenses over that period.

BSF’s Exclusive Controlover the Technology

BSF’s claimsof having exclusive control of the technology may be likely substantial. The factors that lead to the belief that this assertion is reasonable include the time and costs that BSF has incurred in developing the technology. The firm is expected to spend a total of $360 million AUD on the bacteria research alone to bring the technology to the market. This is more than half of the $700 million AUD the company is intending to spend on alternative aquaculture feeds. It shows that the scale of the bacteria research is massive and possibly no other firm has been able to do the same. BSF has obtained government funding for its other projects, leaving them to focus their own resources on the bacteria research. It is unlikely that another firm has been able to get such funding. Moreover, the time it has taken BSF to research and develop the solution is significantly long. If another firm was undertaking a similar venture, it might have been known.

However, the fact that BSF may have been the only firm that undertook research and development of the solution, it does not automatically guarantee them control over the technology (Wang &Hagedoorn, 2014).It must be acknowledged that a patent registration is not universal. In fact, the patent is only enforceable in countries where there is a valid patent family member. Competitors may easily use the BSF’s results and start developing similar solutions in geographical regions where BSF’s technology is not covered as intellectual property. An alternative would be to widen the geographical scope of the patent. However, widening the geographical scope of the patent cover would mean increased costs for its registration and maintenance (Chisum, 2015).

References

Adeyemi, O. I., & Hunt, L. C. (2014). Accounting for asymmetric price responses and underlying energy demand trends in OECD industrial energy demand. Energy Economics, 45, 435-444.

Bocken, N. M. P., Short, S. W., Rana, P., & Evans, S. (2014). A literature and practice review to develop sustainable business model archetypes. Journal of cleaner production, 65, 42-56.

CBC. (2016). Shift to plant-based fish feed could hurt environment, CBCNews Technology & Science, (23 Mar/16), Retrieved on 21 Sep/ 16 from http://www.cbc.ca/news/technology/aquaculture-feed-1.3262922

Chisum, D. S. (2015).Double Patenting (Vol. 3).Chisum on Patents.

Delaney, C. J., Rich, S. P., & Rose, J. T. (2016). A Paradox Within The Time Value Of Money: A Critical Thinking Exercise For Finance Students. American Journal of Business Education (Online), 9(2), 83.

Ioannou, I., &Serafeim, G. (2014). The consequences of mandatory corporate sustainability reporting: evidence from four countries. Harvard Business School Research Working Paper, (11-100).

Johnson, J., & Higgins, A. (2014).Evaluating the Fair Market Value of Pay for Performance.Healthcare Financial Management, 68(4), 80-84.

Lang, T., &Barling, D. (2012). Food security and food sustainability: reformulating the debate. The Geographical Journal, 178(4), 313-326.

Lothe R. (2013). Fish feed-research may help reduce world hunger, Science Nordic. Retrieved on 29 Sep/ 16 from http://sciencenordic.com/fush-feed-research-may-help-reduce-world-hunger

Wang, N., &Hagedoorn, J. (2014). The lag structure of the relationship between patenting and internal R&D revisited. Research Policy, 43(8), 1275-1285.


 
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1. Investors invest their funds in order to earn profits. Despite having a series of other options to invest funds, stocks are the most popular methods to invest the savings and earn profits. The modern portfolio theory states that risk averse investor can construct portfolios to maximize returns with agiven level of market risk with a strong emphasis that risk is an inherent part of higher rewards.

However this risk can be minimized to a certain extent by applying the technique of diversification. Diversification is the tool that employs assets of different kinds for investment. The sole reason behind employing this technique is to act prudent and dodge oneself from risks. There are two methods of diversifying the funds: between asset categories and within asset categories. Diversification between asset categories can be achieved by investing in the wide array of asset types such as stocks, bonds, T bills etc. The main purpose that gets served is the different mature of performance of these assets as they all belong to different market conditions. Diversifying within asset categories can be achieved by investing funds in a single asset but under different subheads. For example: Investing in different industries and firms stocks. However the main point to remember here is to undertake at least ten to twelve firms of different industries in order to successfully diversify the funds. Another two concepts that bear a great impact on the diversification process is the quantum of risk and time frame. Every stock is not going to perform same with time. The stock itself shall react differently to different time frames. Risk capacity of the investor too does not remain the same always. A youth is going to be far more aggressive that a mid aged man. With passage of time we gain experience, become patient but loose the capacity to be aggressive and think to settle for less return but higher stability. Investors seek more stability with age because they want a cushion against the market volatility and probable loss if the asset does not perform as per the expectations. However excessive diversification too shall distort the returns. As Charlie Munger correctly puts, “The idea of excessive diversification is madness. Wide diversification which necessarily includes investment in mediocre businesses only guarantees ordinary results. “

2.  The investors always cushion themselves from risky asset with a risk free asset. Though the general notion in the investment tends to invest in more risky asset in order to gain more returns, investors turn cautious with risk in contrast to returns generated. CAPM model is the model which intends to calculate the required return based on the amount of risk undertaken. The general idea behind CAPM is to compensate the investors with time value of money and risk. The CAPM model puts forth the idea that expected return of a security or a portfolio should equal the rate on a risk free security plus a risk premium. If this expected rate of return does not equalize to the required return then the investment should not be done. The security market line plots the results of the CAPM for all different levels of risks or betas.

In its simplest form the CAPM is defined by the following equation: E(Ri) = Rf + βi[E(Rm) – Rf],

where E(Ri) = The expected return of stock

βi = COV (Ri , Rm)

VAR (Rm) Rf = The risk free rate of return

E(Rm) = The expected return of the market

The major difference between CAPM and MPT is that MPT assumes that investors are risk averse and shall prefer securities that have a lower risk.

3. The Fama French Three Factor model has replaced the CAPM model for understanding the portfolio performance in a wider manner. It is the new widely accepted explanation of stock prices in relation to their returns. CAPM used a single factor i.e. proportional market risk in order to explain the stock price and asset returns. The theory was elegant but was not free of errors. It could not explain the market return of portfolio which comprised stocks that were far from the center of the market. Small value companies generate a higher return and this phenomenon cannot be fully justified through the CAPM model.

The TFM (three factor model) of Fama and French (1996) uses the usual multiple regression method. It is expressed via equation below:

Rit – Rft = αit + βiM (RMt – Rft) + βisSMBt + βihHMLt +εit

whereRit = Average monthly return of portfolio

Rft = Risk free rate observed at the end of each month

βiM = COV (R , R) VAR (R)

RMt = Expected Market Return

SMB = Small Minus Big (proxy for company Size)

 HML = High Minus Low (proxy for BE/ME)

βis& βih = Factor loadings (other than market β). These loadings also represent the slope(s) in the time series regression.

αit&εit = These represent the intercept of the regression and the error term respectively.

In the real world investors are concerned about lots of risks in contrast to one. However risks which have systematic prices attached to them can render great explanation of performance and pricing. These risks are market, size and value. Investor’s returns portray the firms cost of capital. In the secondary market also the cost of firm’s capital is estimated by the price of the security small firms pay more for capital in case of capital borrowing or issuing securities in the market. At the same time firms with poor performance and poor forecasts for future tend to pay more. Fama French model accepts the stock with high BTM i.e. book value to its market value to be value stocks. The theory defines the size premium as difference in returns between largest stocks and smallest stocks in CRSP database. Value premium thus is difference in returns between the stocks.

 The key element of the model are zero risk return, market premium, size premium, value premium, impact of management i.e. Alpha and random error. Size and value risks are different than the market risk, but do not necessarily add total risk to the portfolio. A portfolio far from the market will act differently from the market but may or may not necessarily have more risks.

 
References:

Armstrong III, F. (2016). Forbes Welcome. Forbes.com. Retrieved 16 September 2016, from http://www.forbes.com/sites/frankarmstrong/2013/05/23/fama-french-three-factor-model/2/#5adac70750f5

Pettengill, G., Chang, G., &Hueng, J. (2012). Risk-return Predictions with the Fama-french Three-factor Model Betas. International Journal Of Economics And Finance, 5(1). http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/ijef.v5n1p34
 

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Executive Summary

            This paper investigates the financial and operational position of FFI Holdings limited for the year fiscal years 2014-15. The paper tried to find out where and why the company did good and the potential reasons of its not doing well in some areas. For this purpose the study compared and analyzed the annual reports of the company from 2014 and 2015 to arrive at conclusions. The report noted that he major problem for the company is its significant decrease in operating profits or operating revenues which has been caused by increased operational costs. One element identified is the significant increase in operational finance cost which is reflected in the increased short term liabilities of the company. The study made a number of recommendations to the company which is hoped would help the better focus on areas to enhance and despite a 35% reduction in earnings per share, it would be able to revive investor interest in  the company.


Table of Contents

Introduction. 3

A. Statement of Financial position. 3

B. Stockholder’s Equity. 6

C. Statement of Profit & Loss. 7

D. Statement of Cash Flow.. 9

Conclusion. 11

Recommendations. 12

Works Cited. 14


Introduction

            FFI Holdings Limited is engaged in the business of processing, manufacturing, distribution and packaging of food products within Australia.  There are segments that the company operates through - Bakery, Investment Property and Smallgoods. The company uses its own retail brands Nemar and Golden Popcorn, and the retailers’ private labels for the distribution and marketing of a number of products in  the retail market such as cooking chocolates, sugar confectionery, chocolate coated confectionery, popcorn snack food products and cake decorations.

            Its brands Prepact and Snowflake are marketed in the home cooking market sector where various products are produced and marketed by the company. The company produces specialty chocolate compounds, apple products, cake decoration toppings and baker’s fillings targeted at  the bakery and pastry cooks industries and engages in contract packing services on behalf of third party brands (www.ffiholdings.com.au, 2016). It also produces processed meat products like fresh sausages, bacon.

            Headquartered in Jandakot, Australia, FFI Holdings Limited was founded in 1979 and also has business interests in prime industrial and commercial property for investment. The company values integrity, creativity, flexibility and reliability and consider itself to be a leader in the Australian food industry. Apart from all states of Australia, the country also has operations in some South East Asian markets (www.bloomberg.com, 2016).

A. Statement of Financial position

a) Total current revenues:

The total current revenues of the company were $30,723,095 for 2015 and $30, 469,433 in 2014. The company noted a negligible increase in current revenues of 0.8% compared to 2014

b) Total non-current assets

The company had total non-current assets of $32,694,836 for 2015 and $32,068,456 in 2014. The company increased its non-current assets by 1.95% in 2015 compared to 2014.

c) Total current liabilities

The total current liabilities for the company for 2015 were $3657153 in 2015 and $3,388,189 in 2014 noting a 7.9% increase in 2015 compared to a year earlier.

d) Total non -current liabilities

The total non-current liabilities of the company in 2015 and 2014 was $3,000,000 for every year in the form of long term borrowings noting no change in the figure I the two years being studied

e) Total stockholder’s equity

The total shareholder’s equity for the company increased in 2015 compared to 2014 by 4.92% from 29,016,777 in 2014 to 30,444,828 in 2015.

The increase in the current revenues for the company has been 0.8%. Current revenues denote the money that the company is scheduled to get paid within the next one year. This very small increase notes that the company has not been able to enhance its current revenues generating avenues in any significant manner in 2015 compared to what it did a year ago(http://quote.morningstar.com, 2015). 

The company saw an increase in its non-current assets by 1.95% in 2015 compared to that of 2014. Now non-current assets are those assets that are expected to remain with the company and which the company can use to generate value in the future but not in the immediate future such as within the next one year(A. Coste, 2014). the increase of nearly 2% of non-current assets by the company in the current year compared to a year earlier indicates that the company has been trying to enhance long term assets with the use of money generated from business and also shows that the company has the ability to generate assets that ultimately increases the market value of the company(Unknown, 2004).

Current liabilities are those that the company has to pay off within the next one year. This value increased by 7.9% 2015 compared to a year earlier which means that the company has to pay more money in the next year (2016) than it did in 2015. Current liability increase generally means that the cost of running the business in the short term has increased.

No change in non-current liabilities shows that the company has not taken any new long term loans in 2015 expect what was outstanding from the last year noting a healthy financial state and indicating that the company has been able to finance any new projects or capital expenditure by itself or from the retained profits or shareholder’s equity.

This is reflected in the increase in the total equity of stockholders in 2015 by 4.92% compared to 2014.

B. Stockholder’s Equity

Comparison of the stockholders equity patters for the two years – 2014 and 2015, reveals that the total stockholders’ equity has risen in the current year compared to a year earlier. The net value of the company is represented by the stockholders' equity, or the amount of money which can be returned to the shareholders by the liquidation of all the company's assets as well as all its debts repaid(Galbraith, 2007).

In general, stockholders’ equity is found out by subtracting total liabilities form total assets.

The components that make up stockholders' equity in the balance sheets of companies are:

Paid-in capital – this is the money that was raised from the issuing of shares or of capital stock.

Retained earnings – this represents the amount that remains with the company after the company has paid all of the dividends to the shareholders.

Accumulated other comprehensive income – this includes any amount that is not reported under the net income section in a financial report

Treasury stock – this is the amount that is deducted from stockholders' equity and is the amount that is spent by the company for repurchase of shares without retiring any of its own shares of capital stock(Mori, n.d.).

For the company being discussed, the % increase in stockholders’ equity has been noted at 4.92%.

This includes enhancement of in fully paid ordinary shares in the company from $9,385,111 in 2014 to $9,672,585 in 2015 where shares were issued by the company in 2 phases during year starting November 2014 to April 2015. No money was expended in creating treasury stock. In 2014, the company had also issued outstanding shares to the tune of $956550. In  2015, the company issued $287474. Therefore nearly 70 percent less outstanding shares were issued by the company in 2015 compared to 2014(http://quote.morningstar.com, 2015).

A detailed review of the stockholders’ equity section in the balance sheet of the company for 2015 reveals that there has been an enhancement of 6.72% in the ordinary share value in the company reflective of the number of new shares issued and that were fully paid by investors.

The cash reserves of the company for revaluation of reserve records and for non-current assets from which dividends can also be given have remain unchanged during the two years under consideration. However there has been an increase in the amount of retained earnings of the company by 6.8 percent. This is again reflective of the fact that the company did not have to take long term loans to finance business activities as well as of the ability of the company to generate earnings in addition to the paying dividends to shareholders.

C. Statement of Profit & Loss

a) Total operating revenues

Operating revenues, also referred to as operating profits, is the amount that that company generates from its overall business operation minus the expenses that it incurs in operational expenses. Such operational expenses can be items like the cost of goods sold, expenses for freight, rents and lease rentals, office supplies, marketing and advertising expenses and payroll expenses. The operating revenues does not take into account the any of the taxes, any loan repayment or interest payable or any payments for single events like lawsuits etc(Kothari, 2008).

Study of the company balance sheet shows that operating revenues or the profit before accounting for taxes etc. has come down to $2,972,301 from $4,631,356 in 2014 noting a percentage decline of nearly 36%. This number was reached despite the fact in 2015 the total revenues of the company were more than that in 2014. This means that the cost of operation had increased significantly in 2015 resulting in the 36% drop in operating profits.

b) Cost of goods

The costs of goods for 2014increased by a 4.78% in 2015 compared to t a year earlier. This is reflective of the value of amount that the company spent in the production process of the goods. In this aspect the most noticeable change occurred in the change in inventories for finished goods and work in progress which increased by nearly 34% in 2015 compared to 2014. This shows that more capital of the company was locked up in inventory in 2015.

However this was partially offset by reduction in the costs for raw materials in 2015 by 4.34 %.

c) Total expenses (before income tax)

            The total expense before tax was paid by the company in 2015 was $27,750,794 and $25,838,077 in 2014. The change in total expense for the two years was 7.4% where expense in 2015 was more than the previous year.

d) Any non operating (extraordinary) gains and losses

Non-operating or extraordinary income or loss is the amount generated or lost from activities and sources that are not part of the main or central operations of a business. They are also referred to as incidental or peripheral revenues. This can include income from interests, shares in other entities, rents, etc(Anabila, 2012).

In the case at hand the extraordinary sources of revenue include dividends, rent and interests received and other revenues sources which re minor and hence not defined. The combined figure of extraordinary income for 2015 was $775,281and that for 2014 was $215,413. Hence there was an increase of 260% in extraordinary income for the company in 2015 compared to a year earlier.

e) Earnings per common share

The earnings per share of EPS for 2015 was 22.7 cents while the figure stood at 36.2 cents per share in 2014. Hence there was a reduction of 37.2% in the dividends paid to shareholders of the company I 2015. This is directly linked to the operating revenue or profit generated which had also dropped by around 35% as shown earlier(http://quote.morningstar.com, 2015).

Hence from the above ratios and figures derived from the company balance sheet of 2015, it is evident that the company has not been able to deliver to expectations compared to a year earlier and has failed in almost parts, primarily due to the rise in the cost of operations in 2015 compared to 2014.

D. Statement of Cash Flow

a) Net cash inflow (outflow) from operating activities

The net cash outflow provided for operating activities for 2015 for the company was much more than that in 2014. The figure was an astounding 400% more in 2015 compared to 2014. This was primarily due to increase finance costs or costs incurred in interest payments for short term and long term debts, which increased by 256% in 2015 and reduction in income tax refunds to the tune of nearly 60 percent. 

b) Net cash inflow(outflow) from financial activities

There here was a net cash inflow from financing activities in 2014 compared to a net cash outflow in 2014 from financial activities. The difference was primarily due to the fact that the company had paid a larger dividend in 2014 which resulted in cash outflows. However there was a surplus in the net cash used (inflow) in financing activities in 2014 compared to an outflow in 2015 because the company had taken a debt of $3,000,000 in 2014 and hence had additional cash at hand.

c) Net cash inflow(outflow) from investing activities

Both the years under consideration saw net cash outflows in investing activities. But there was andecrease of nearly 70 percent in cash outflow in 2015 compared to 2014. The main reason for this is that the company had incurred cash outflows to the tune of $4,112,634 in property development costs in 2014 compared to just $103,625 in 2015. This was nearly 198% less in 2015 compared to 2014. Therefore this resulted in the greater cash outflow by the company in investment activities in 2014.

d) Net increase (decrease) in cash during the year

The company had a net cash outflow of $2,040,004 in 2014 while it had a net cash inflow of $1,634,664 in 2015. Hence there was clearly a surplus in net cash in 2015 (as on 30June 2015). Compared to the figure in 2014, the difference in net cash was to the tune of $1,634,664. This was 186.5% more compared to the net cash the company had at the end of last year (30July 2014)(http://quote.morningstar.com, 2015).

The cash flow analysis clearly establishes that in terms of cash inflow the company was in the better position in 2015 compared to the year earlier despite the fact that the company had taken a debt in 2014. But the cash outflow in 2-14 was primarily due to the expenses incurred in the creation of property assets of assets. The cash flow scenario was better in 2015 because of a drastic reduction in this business activity of the company. Hence it can be concluded that even if the cash position looks bad in 2014 compared to 2015 for the company, it is not much of a worry as the company had invested the money in creation of assets which are yet to be disposed off to generate revenues(Linzer, 2007).

Conclusion

There has not been much of a change in the current revenues for the company amongst the two years under consideration indicating lack of enhancement of revenue generating modes of the company. The company has also not been able to significantly enhance long term assets with a slight increase in its non-current assets. Increase in the current liabilities suggests that the company has increased its costs in 2015 by nearly 8% which is not a good sign for the company financially. However one good thing is that the company has not needed to incur fresh debt in 2015 which shows that the company has been more or less able to finance its projects and business activities internally from the retained profits or increased shareholder’s equity. This is shown by the increase in the total equity of stockholders in 2015 by 4.92% compared to 2014. This is a sign that the company is being managed well mostly.

Another positive indication for the company is the bettering of its debt to equity ratio which the company accomplished by infusing more equity by ways or issuing more ordinary shares. The rise in equity and no change in debt would keep the investors sufficiently interested in investing in the company. The total equity change in 2015 has been nearly 8%.  The company has also retained more in 2015 which means that the company would have more internal revenues in 2016 to finance business costs by itself.

However the reduction in operating profits of the company is a cause of concern. The decline in operating profits, despite the fact in 2015 the total revenues of the company were more than that in 2014, is significantly large compared to 2014 indicating that the company needs to plug operating expenses.

            There has not been a marginal rise in the costs of goods in 2015 except for a noticeable change in inventories for finished goods and work in progress which increased significantly locking up cash and capital of the company.

            Another disturbing fact in the reduction in EPS by 37.2%, and is reflective of the reduction in operating revenue. Therefore it can be concluded that the company has been unable to deliver to expectations in 2015 from the shareholders’ point of view. However the increased cash flows in 2015 and the net available cash of the company is satisfactory.

Recommendations

1) Thes company should seek ways and means to enhance revenue generation as the current revenue situation of the company needs to improve in the face to enhanced business costs.

2) While the company has increased its retained profits in 2015 significantly more compared to 2014, it has not been able to increase long term assets of the company. This is one area that the company should focus and make use of the retained earnings.

3) Increase in the current liabilities makes it necessary for the company to look for ways to reduce the current expenses – especially those associated with running of business.

4) in the last two years the company has increased equity significantly. It is suggested that the company look to other forms of revenue generation for business financing and refrain from diluting the equity structure any more

5)  as mentioned earlier, the company should definitely find out ways to reduce operating expense. One aspect is the finance cost that is increasing the operational expenses and the company has to look into how to better manage its short term loans. The company can look to balance operation financing and creating long term assets from the retained profits this year.

6) While a reduction in the EPS is a serious cause of concern and can impact investor interest in the company, it is advisable that the company clearly communicates to the investors the reason for the increase in expense – especially operating expenses, and the measures it is taking to reduce it. This can help the company offset the negativities caused by a 37.2% drop in EPS in 2015.

Works Cited

A. Coste, A.T.a.S.P.-P. (2014) 'Compliance of Non-current Assets with IFRS Requirements Concerning the Information Disclosure – Case Study ', Procedia Economics and Finance , vol. 15, pp. 1391-1395.

Anabila, A. (2012) 'The Proportion of Non-Operating Income, and Analysts’ Forecasts', International Journal of Economics and Finance , vol. 4, no. 10.

Galbraith, S. (2007) Anatomy of a business , Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press.

http://quote.morningstar.com (2015) FFI Holding Annual Report 2015, 30 Jun, [Online], Available: http://quote.morningstar.com/stock-filing/Annual-Report/2015/6/30/t.aspx?t=XASX:FFI&ft=&d=df772b55a22842609c0e073f4f301233 [21 Sep 2016].

Kothari, F.F.a.V. (2008) Introduction to securitization , Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons.

Linzer, R.L.a.A. (2007) The cash flow solution , San Francisco : Jossey Bass.

Mori, N. (n.d.) 'Why Pay Dividends and Issue Equity Simultaneously? The Controlling Corporate Shareholders' View ', SSRN Electronic Journal.

Unknown (2004) Guidance on implementing IFRS 5 , London, U.K.: IASCF Publications Department.

www.bloomberg.com (2016) Company Overview of FFI Holdings Limited, [Online], Available: http://www.bloomberg.com/research/stocks/private/snapshot.asp?privcapId=7668648 [21 Sep 2016].

www.ffiholdings.com.au (2016) About Us, [Online], Available: http://www.ffiholdings.com.au/about.html [21 Sep 2016].

I can do your assignments, projects and academic papers can do your assignments, projects and academic papers. This is my Skype ID: sabir.shah74 and this is my Email: sabirshah4545@gmail.com  I have done more than 1000 projects in the last three years. I'm very good in doing different kinds of projects and for academic writing I can provide you Turnitin report as well.  Here are some of  my projects which I have done So far.


 
Executive Summary

            This paper investigates the financial and operational position of FFI Holdings limited for the year fiscal years 2014-15. The paper tried to find out where and why the company did good and the potential reasons of its not doing well in some areas. For this purpose the study compared and analyzed the annual reports of the company from 2014 and 2015 to arrive at conclusions. The report noted that he major problem for the company is its significant decrease in operating profits or operating revenues which has been caused by increased operational costs. One element identified is the significant increase in operational finance cost which is reflected in the increased short term liabilities of the company. The study made a number of recommendations to the company which is hoped would help the better focus on areas to enhance and despite a 35% reduction in earnings per share, it would be able to revive investor interest in  the company.

 
Table of Contents

Introduction. 3

A. Statement of Financial position. 3

B. Stockholder’s Equity. 6

C. Statement of Profit & Loss. 7

D. Statement of Cash Flow.. 9

Conclusion. 11

Recommendations. 12

Works Cited. 14


Introduction

            FFI Holdings Limited is engaged in the business of processing, manufacturing, distribution and packaging of food products within Australia.  There are segments that the company operates through - Bakery, Investment Property and Smallgoods. The company uses its own retail brands Nemar and Golden Popcorn, and the retailers’ private labels for the distribution and marketing of a number of products in  the retail market such as cooking chocolates, sugar confectionery, chocolate coated confectionery, popcorn snack food products and cake decorations.

            Its brands Prepact and Snowflake are marketed in the home cooking market sector where various products are produced and marketed by the company. The company produces specialty chocolate compounds, apple products, cake decoration toppings and baker’s fillings targeted at  the bakery and pastry cooks industries and engages in contract packing services on behalf of third party brands (www.ffiholdings.com.au, 2016). It also produces processed meat products like fresh sausages, bacon.

            Headquartered in Jandakot, Australia, FFI Holdings Limited was founded in 1979 and also has business interests in prime industrial and commercial property for investment. The company values integrity, creativity, flexibility and reliability and consider itself to be a leader in the Australian food industry. Apart from all states of Australia, the country also has operations in some South East Asian markets (www.bloomberg.com, 2016).

A. Statement of Financial position

a) Total current revenues:

The total current revenues of the company were $30,723,095 for 2015 and $30, 469,433 in 2014. The company noted a negligible increase in current revenues of 0.8% compared to 2014

b) Total non-current assets

The company had total non-current assets of $32,694,836 for 2015 and $32,068,456 in 2014. The company increased its non-current assets by 1.95% in 2015 compared to 2014.

c) Total current liabilities

The total current liabilities for the company for 2015 were $3657153 in 2015 and $3,388,189 in 2014 noting a 7.9% increase in 2015 compared to a year earlier.

d) Total non -current liabilities

The total non-current liabilities of the company in 2015 and 2014 was $3,000,000 for every year in the form of long term borrowings noting no change in the figure I the two years being studied

e) Total stockholder’s equity

The total shareholder’s equity for the company increased in 2015 compared to 2014 by 4.92% from 29,016,777 in 2014 to 30,444,828 in 2015.

The increase in the current revenues for the company has been 0.8%. Current revenues denote the money that the company is scheduled to get paid within the next one year. This very small increase notes that the company has not been able to enhance its current revenues generating avenues in any significant manner in 2015 compared to what it did a year ago(http://quote.morningstar.com, 2015). 

The company saw an increase in its non-current assets by 1.95% in 2015 compared to that of 2014. Now non-current assets are those assets that are expected to remain with the company and which the company can use to generate value in the future but not in the immediate future such as within the next one year(A. Coste, 2014). the increase of nearly 2% of non-current assets by the company in the current year compared to a year earlier indicates that the company has been trying to enhance long term assets with the use of money generated from business and also shows that the company has the ability to generate assets that ultimately increases the market value of the company(Unknown, 2004).

Current liabilities are those that the company has to pay off within the next one year. This value increased by 7.9% 2015 compared to a year earlier which means that the company has to pay more money in the next year (2016) than it did in 2015. Current liability increase generally means that the cost of running the business in the short term has increased.

No change in non-current liabilities shows that the company has not taken any new long term loans in 2015 expect what was outstanding from the last year noting a healthy financial state and indicating that the company has been able to finance any new projects or capital expenditure by itself or from the retained profits or shareholder’s equity.

This is reflected in the increase in the total equity of stockholders in 2015 by 4.92% compared to 2014.

B. Stockholder’s Equity

Comparison of the stockholders equity patters for the two years – 2014 and 2015, reveals that the total stockholders’ equity has risen in the current year compared to a year earlier. The net value of the company is represented by the stockholders' equity, or the amount of money which can be returned to the shareholders by the liquidation of all the company's assets as well as all its debts repaid(Galbraith, 2007).

In general, stockholders’ equity is found out by subtracting total liabilities form total assets.

The components that make up stockholders' equity in the balance sheets of companies are:

Paid-in capital – this is the money that was raised from the issuing of shares or of capital stock.

Retained earnings – this represents the amount that remains with the company after the company has paid all of the dividends to the shareholders.

Accumulated other comprehensive income – this includes any amount that is not reported under the net income section in a financial report

Treasury stock – this is the amount that is deducted from stockholders' equity and is the amount that is spent by the company for repurchase of shares without retiring any of its own shares of capital stock(Mori, n.d.).

For the company being discussed, the % increase in stockholders’ equity has been noted at 4.92%.

This includes enhancement of in fully paid ordinary shares in the company from $9,385,111 in 2014 to $9,672,585 in 2015 where shares were issued by the company in 2 phases during year starting November 2014 to April 2015. No money was expended in creating treasury stock. In 2014, the company had also issued outstanding shares to the tune of $956550. In  2015, the company issued $287474. Therefore nearly 70 percent less outstanding shares were issued by the company in 2015 compared to 2014(http://quote.morningstar.com, 2015).

A detailed review of the stockholders’ equity section in the balance sheet of the company for 2015 reveals that there has been an enhancement of 6.72% in the ordinary share value in the company reflective of the number of new shares issued and that were fully paid by investors.

The cash reserves of the company for revaluation of reserve records and for non-current assets from which dividends can also be given have remain unchanged during the two years under consideration. However there has been an increase in the amount of retained earnings of the company by 6.8 percent. This is again reflective of the fact that the company did not have to take long term loans to finance business activities as well as of the ability of the company to generate earnings in addition to the paying dividends to shareholders.

C. Statement of Profit & Loss

a) Total operating revenues

Operating revenues, also referred to as operating profits, is the amount that that company generates from its overall business operation minus the expenses that it incurs in operational expenses. Such operational expenses can be items like the cost of goods sold, expenses for freight, rents and lease rentals, office supplies, marketing and advertising expenses and payroll expenses. The operating revenues does not take into account the any of the taxes, any loan repayment or interest payable or any payments for single events like lawsuits etc(Kothari, 2008).

Study of the company balance sheet shows that operating revenues or the profit before accounting for taxes etc. has come down to $2,972,301 from $4,631,356 in 2014 noting a percentage decline of nearly 36%. This number was reached despite the fact in 2015 the total revenues of the company were more than that in 2014. This means that the cost of operation had increased significantly in 2015 resulting in the 36% drop in operating profits.

b) Cost of goods

The costs of goods for 2014increased by a 4.78% in 2015 compared to t a year earlier. This is reflective of the value of amount that the company spent in the production process of the goods. In this aspect the most noticeable change occurred in the change in inventories for finished goods and work in progress which increased by nearly 34% in 2015 compared to 2014. This shows that more capital of the company was locked up in inventory in 2015.

However this was partially offset by reduction in the costs for raw materials in 2015 by 4.34 %.

c) Total expenses (before income tax)

            The total expense before tax was paid by the company in 2015 was $27,750,794 and $25,838,077 in 2014. The change in total expense for the two years was 7.4% where expense in 2015 was more than the previous year.

d) Any non operating (extraordinary) gains and losses

Non-operating or extraordinary income or loss is the amount generated or lost from activities and sources that are not part of the main or central operations of a business. They are also referred to as incidental or peripheral revenues. This can include income from interests, shares in other entities, rents, etc(Anabila, 2012).

In the case at hand the extraordinary sources of revenue include dividends, rent and interests received and other revenues sources which re minor and hence not defined. The combined figure of extraordinary income for 2015 was $775,281and that for 2014 was $215,413. Hence there was an increase of 260% in extraordinary income for the company in 2015 compared to a year earlier.

e) Earnings per common share

The earnings per share of EPS for 2015 was 22.7 cents while the figure stood at 36.2 cents per share in 2014. Hence there was a reduction of 37.2% in the dividends paid to shareholders of the company I 2015. This is directly linked to the operating revenue or profit generated which had also dropped by around 35% as shown earlier(http://quote.morningstar.com, 2015).

Hence from the above ratios and figures derived from the company balance sheet of 2015, it is evident that the company has not been able to deliver to expectations compared to a year earlier and has failed in almost parts, primarily due to the rise in the cost of operations in 2015 compared to 2014.

 

D. Statement of Cash Flow

a) Net cash inflow (outflow) from operating activities

The net cash outflow provided for operating activities for 2015 for the company was much more than that in 2014. The figure was an astounding 400% more in 2015 compared to 2014. This was primarily due to increase finance costs or costs incurred in interest payments for short term and long term debts, which increased by 256% in 2015 and reduction in income tax refunds to the tune of nearly 60 percent. 

b) Net cash inflow(outflow) from financial activities

There here was a net cash inflow from financing activities in 2014 compared to a net cash outflow in 2014 from financial activities. The difference was primarily due to the fact that the company had paid a larger dividend in 2014 which resulted in cash outflows. However there was a surplus in the net cash used (inflow) in financing activities in 2014 compared to an outflow in 2015 because the company had taken a debt of $3,000,000 in 2014 and hence had additional cash at hand.

c) Net cash inflow(outflow) from investing activities

Both the years under consideration saw net cash outflows in investing activities. But there was andecrease of nearly 70 percent in cash outflow in 2015 compared to 2014. The main reason for this is that the company had incurred cash outflows to the tune of $4,112,634 in property development costs in 2014 compared to just $103,625 in 2015. This was nearly 198% less in 2015 compared to 2014. Therefore this resulted in the greater cash outflow by the company in investment activities in 2014.

d) Net increase (decrease) in cash during the year

The company had a net cash outflow of $2,040,004 in 2014 while it had a net cash inflow of $1,634,664 in 2015. Hence there was clearly a surplus in net cash in 2015 (as on 30June 2015). Compared to the figure in 2014, the difference in net cash was to the tune of $1,634,664. This was 186.5% more compared to the net cash the company had at the end of last year (30July 2014)(http://quote.morningstar.com, 2015).

The cash flow analysis clearly establishes that in terms of cash inflow the company was in the better position in 2015 compared to the year earlier despite the fact that the company had taken a debt in 2014. But the cash outflow in 2-14 was primarily due to the expenses incurred in the creation of property assets of assets. The cash flow scenario was better in 2015 because of a drastic reduction in this business activity of the company. Hence it can be concluded that even if the cash position looks bad in 2014 compared to 2015 for the company, it is not much of a worry as the company had invested the money in creation of assets which are yet to be disposed off to generate revenues(Linzer, 2007).

Conclusion

There has not been much of a change in the current revenues for the company amongst the two years under consideration indicating lack of enhancement of revenue generating modes of the company. The company has also not been able to significantly enhance long term assets with a slight increase in its non-current assets. Increase in the current liabilities suggests that the company has increased its costs in 2015 by nearly 8% which is not a good sign for the company financially. However one good thing is that the company has not needed to incur fresh debt in 2015 which shows that the company has been more or less able to finance its projects and business activities internally from the retained profits or increased shareholder’s equity. This is shown by the increase in the total equity of stockholders in 2015 by 4.92% compared to 2014. This is a sign that the company is being managed well mostly.

Another positive indication for the company is the bettering of its debt to equity ratio which the company accomplished by infusing more equity by ways or issuing more ordinary shares. The rise in equity and no change in debt would keep the investors sufficiently interested in investing in the company. The total equity change in 2015 has been nearly 8%.  The company has also retained more in 2015 which means that the company would have more internal revenues in 2016 to finance business costs by itself.

However the reduction in operating profits of the company is a cause of concern. The decline in operating profits, despite the fact in 2015 the total revenues of the company were more than that in 2014, is significantly large compared to 2014 indicating that the company needs to plug operating expenses.

            There has not been a marginal rise in the costs of goods in 2015 except for a noticeable change in inventories for finished goods and work in progress which increased significantly locking up cash and capital of the company.

            Another disturbing fact in the reduction in EPS by 37.2%, and is reflective of the reduction in operating revenue. Therefore it can be concluded that the company has been unable to deliver to expectations in 2015 from the shareholders’ point of view. However the increased cash flows in 2015 and the net available cash of the company is satisfactory.

Recommendations

1) Thes company should seek ways and means to enhance revenue generation as the current revenue situation of the company needs to improve in the face to enhanced business costs.

2) While the company has increased its retained profits in 2015 significantly more compared to 2014, it has not been able to increase long term assets of the company. This is one area that the company should focus and make use of the retained earnings.

3) Increase in the current liabilities makes it necessary for the company to look for ways to reduce the current expenses – especially those associated with running of business.

4) in the last two years the company has increased equity significantly. It is suggested that the company look to other forms of revenue generation for business financing and refrain from diluting the equity structure any more

5)  as mentioned earlier, the company should definitely find out ways to reduce operating expense. One aspect is the finance cost that is increasing the operational expenses and the company has to look into how to better manage its short term loans. The company can look to balance operation financing and creating long term assets from the retained profits this year.

6) While a reduction in the EPS is a serious cause of concern and can impact investor interest in the company, it is advisable that the company clearly communicates to the investors the reason for the increase in expense – especially operating expenses, and the measures it is taking to reduce it. This can help the company offset the negativities caused by a 37.2% drop in EPS in 2015.


Works Cited

A. Coste, A.T.a.S.P.-P. (2014) 'Compliance of Non-current Assets with IFRS Requirements Concerning the Information Disclosure – Case Study ', Procedia Economics and Finance , vol. 15, pp. 1391-1395.

Anabila, A. (2012) 'The Proportion of Non-Operating Income, and Analysts’ Forecasts', International Journal of Economics and Finance , vol. 4, no. 10.

Galbraith, S. (2007) Anatomy of a business , Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press.

http://quote.morningstar.com (2015) FFI Holding Annual Report 2015, 30 Jun, [Online], Available: http://quote.morningstar.com/stock-filing/Annual-Report/2015/6/30/t.aspx?t=XASX:FFI&ft=&d=df772b55a22842609c0e073f4f301233 [21 Sep 2016].

Kothari, F.F.a.V. (2008) Introduction to securitization , Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons.

Linzer, R.L.a.A. (2007) The cash flow solution , San Francisco : Jossey Bass.

Mori, N. (n.d.) 'Why Pay Dividends and Issue Equity Simultaneously? The Controlling Corporate Shareholders' View ', SSRN Electronic Journal.

Unknown (2004) Guidance on implementing IFRS 5 , London, U.K.: IASCF Publications Department.

www.bloomberg.com (2016) Company Overview of FFI Holdings Limited, [Online], Available: http://www.bloomberg.com/research/stocks/private/snapshot.asp?privcapId=7668648 [21 Sep 2016].

www.ffiholdings.com.au (2016) About Us, [Online], Available: http://www.ffiholdings.com.au/about.html [21 Sep 2016].

 I can do your assignments, projects and academic papers can do your assignments, projects and academic papers. This is my Skype ID: sabir.shah74 and this is my Email: sabirshah4545@gmail.com  I have done more than 1000 projects in the last three years. I'm very good in doing different kinds of projects and for academic writing I can provide you Turnitin report as well.  Here are some of  my projects which I have done So far.



Introduction:
Aim:

The aim of this paper is to critically evaluate the HRM practices of the organization, IKEA. IKEA is a multinational company that deals in is innovative furniture which can be assembled easily by the customer (Chopra, 2015). Human Resource Management or HRM represents the processes and systems used by an organization to manage the human resources. This includes aspects like recruitment, training, motivation, rewards, performance assessment, employee loyalty, etc.

Case study:

This paper focuses on the case of IKEA as this company’s HRM has been widely acclaimed in the media in recent times. In a report, Fortune highlighted IKEA in its list of top 100 companies to work for (Fortune, 2015). Also, IKEA was given the 2nd rand in a list of best employers made by Forbes Magazine (Smith, 2015). The company was also named the best employer in a survey done by Home Goods Online. Thus, it can be seen that the company’s HRM practices have been highly effective and have received positive reception. Feedback from employees as well as surveys, studies, etc. reveal that the HRM practices of this company are innovative and unique. This is what makes it such a good employer. In this paper, the different aspects of the HRM of IKEA have been critically evaluated to find out the extent of their innovation and effectiveness. The paper has also recommended strategies which can further improve the HRM scenario of the company.

Limitation:

A limitation of the report is that it relies only on secondary data, that is, data collected from already published or available literary or online sources.

Thesis statement:

The thesis statement of the report is: “Critical analysis of the HRM practices of IKEA to identify the extent of innovation and effectiveness.”

Overview about the company:

IKEA is one of the most reputed and leading furniture companies in the world. It prioritizes consumer convenience, and hence, its products can be assembled very easily by buyers. The products are stylish and cater to a wide variety of aesthetic senses. At present, IKEA functions in 48 countries through 384 stores. It was founded in 1943 in Sweden by Ingvar Kamprad. In 2015, its revenue was 32 billion USD (Bays, 2015). The company has strong online presence too and e-commerce generates a significant share of its revenue. The company is the biggest consumer of wood in the retail sector globally. The company’s HR strategy is closely integrated with the organizational objectives. This can be seen in the equation shared between the executive leaders and the employees of the company. The relationship is symbiotic and there is constant and open two way communication. There are regular meetings and the opinions and recommendations of employees are taken seriously. The hierarchies in the organization are not highlighted and the work atmosphere is friendly and warm. The leaders set very positive examples. IKEA’s founder and owner, Ingvar Kamprad, leads a very humble lifestyle and does not have a high handed approach. He uses a very simple car and travels economy class. This brings him closer to employees and enhances the bond of employees with the organization. The company provides growth options and support to employees through leadership development programs, paid parental leaves, internal succession options, etc. (Kats, 2015).

Critical evaluation of the performance appraisal system of IKEA:

Performance appraisal is a system or set of processes used to evaluate the performances of human resources in an organization. The aim is to assess the extent to which an employee is effective in realizing the organizational goals. IKEA’s performance appraisal system stems from its organizational culture. The culture is highly supportive of employees and prioritizes their needs. The company believes that if employees are happy and satisfied, customers will be so too. The company focuses on engaging employees strongly. Engagement is achieved through effective management of performance and talent which is closely connected with the strategic management of the company. The company assesses performances and provides constructive feedback to employees. Even if an employee’s performance is poor, he or she is criticized constructively and motivated to do better, rather than reprimanding the employee or being negative (Fortune, 2015). The performance appraisal tool used by IKEA is the 360 degree feedback system. This provides an all-round detailed picture of an employee’s performance. IKEA’s appraisal involves reflection based self-evaluation done by employee’s themselves, feedback from customers, feedback from juniors, colleagues and senior management officials. This strategy ensures that employees know where they stand. The tool is unbiased as multiple perspectives are involved. Employees can directly see their impact on juniors, seniors, colleagues, customers, etc. They can identify their strengths, weaknesses, mistakes, etc. easily and can take steps to improve, under the guidance of the company. The best part of this appraisal strategy is that employees feel empowered. In this system, it is not just the seniors or managers who evaluate employees, but, the juniors and employees evaluate managers too. This gives employees the voice to express their feedback strongly and prevents abuse of authority or any form of unfair treatment. The 360 degree tool helps managers see the extent of effectiveness of their leadership and management styles and respective actions or decisions. They can reflect and make changes to improve their effectiveness as managers accordingly (Smith, 2015).

As per Smith (2015), IKEA focuses on generating high return on investments by using training and development options to manage poor performances. Poor performers work closely with the Human Resource Managers to identify their weaknesses and the underlying factors. Then, the HRM guides and supports them and provides the necessary training needed to overcome the weaknesses and improve performance. IKEA has a paternalistic leadership style and this is reflected in the ways in which the company deals with employees and their needs. This style is highly supportive of employees and empowers them. The seniors guide employees and push them to improve themselves like father figures. It must be noted that initially, IKEA has a set of highly standardized HR policies which were uniform for all employees. However, things changed in the late 90s, when Spiers-Lopez took the position of the HR head in the North American domain of IKEA. She understood that IKEA was failing to derive maximum productivity and efficiency from employees through uniform policies. The policies were restricted in the fact that they did not focus on individual needs and preferences of human resources. Spiers-Lopez added a personal touch to HRM and performance appraisal became more individualistic, with strong focus on distinct characteristics and needs of different employees. The policies were made more flexible too in order to increase the convenience of employees. The focus on individuality and acknowledging and respecting each employee as a unique individual, revolutionized HRM and performance appraisal at IKEA. This made growth and development of employees much easier (Chopra, 2015).

According to Bays (2015), an integral aspect of the performance appraisal system of IKEA is its working schedule restructuration. The performance appraisal system focuses on identifying preferred work schedules of employees and managers. Work schedules are restructured accordingly in order to increase efficiency and productivity of human resources. As per the company’s management, a manager must not just be a doer, rather, he or she must be able to coordinate teams effectively. The company uses a tool called Index coordination skills to assess managers. This is an open tool that allows managers to see their defects and issues. This system is a part of the Anglo-Saxon Team Management System and involves a survey with 66 questions. These questions focus on assessing managers with respect to 11 skills that are necessary for being an effective manager. The evaluations are completely anonymous, ensuring validity and reliability of data. The 11 skills that IKEA focuses on include listening, communicating, dispute resolution, team development, dividing labor and confidence (Kats, 2015). Managers must also have the ability to delegate work and set positive examples for subordinates to follow. Managers also need to set appropriate objectives effectively and coordinate with the different teams. Managers must participate in the problem solving procedures of different teams so that the team members feel that the managers are connected to them. It can be understood that the performance appraisal system of IKEA is effective and ensures growth and development of employees. It also manages poor performances efficiently.

Critical evaluation of rewards system of IKEA:

As per Singh (2015), IKEA’s rewards system is focused upon meeting individual needs and preferences of employees. It is not a standardized policy and has a personal and individual appeal. The managers play a direct role in the incentive system. Based on the appraisals, the managers decide which rewards will be given to which employees. As the rewards are personalized and employee specific, they have high impact in motivating employees. Also, the rewards system varies from market to market and has local contexts. IKEA is present in 48 countries, and its rewards involve local cultural elements. In each market, the rewards are such that they have appeal to the employees with respect to the local culture. Apart from appraisal based rewards, the company also provides a lot of other rewards options. For example, in 2013, it paid thousands of employees a bonus of £500 bonus in their pension funds in order to thank them for their services (Collins, 2015). This step made IKEA a pioneer as it is one of the first organizations to reward employees through retirement policies. The company also uses rewards to improve motivation and employee engagement. The company often rewards employees by distributing the entire sales amount of a day among them. In 2015, this led to each full time employee of the company spread across the globe getting a bonus of $ 1800 (Hawkes, 2015). Employees also get special discounts on IKEA’s products. It also offers a huge variety of internal training and development programs which are fully funded by the company. These programs enable employees to improve their existing skills as well as learn new skills. It also offers paid holidays and vacations. Good performances are rewarded with fast increments and promotions. The management is inclusive and employees are made to feel like they own the company. Employees know that working at IKEA is going to provide ample growth opportunities. The salaries are above the industry average and career development opportunities are fair and depend directly on employee performances, not on factors like hierarchy, seniority, age, etc. (Yousigma, 2014).Thus, it can be understood that the rewards system of IKEA is quite unique and focuses on meeting individual needs of employees. It has also started new trends, like its pension fund bonus program.

Recommendations to improve performance management and rewards system of IKEA:

In order to improve performance management, IKEA can use a revolutionary strategy by following the example of Accenture. In 2015 end, Accenture declared that from 2016 onward, it would suspend its annual performance appraisal and ranking system (Cunningham, 2016). It has replaced the old system with a fluid, warm, two way communication based approach in which managers will discuss performances with employees at a one to one level. IKEA can incorporate this system as this will remove the negativity of rankings and appraisals. Rankings and performance evaluations have a type of stigma attached to them and employees with poor performances can feel labelled. Also, annual evaluations might ignore a lot of older positive performances of employees in light of more recent poor performances, in turn, making the overall performance seem poor. A more regular evaluation based on personal, one to one meetings and discussions with managers can be much more constructive and motivating. A strategy that can improve the rewards system is allowing the employees to directly choose their rewards. The rewards system can involve a one to one discussion with managers in which the preferences of employees will be highlighted and they will be given something that is of value or significance to them. For example, if an employee has been looking forward to taking a vacation in a specific place, giving this vacation to him as a reward can be meaningful and more inspiring as compared to a cash reward or some other form of gift. Another reward can be the opportunity for higher education. Employees with good performances can be given access to completely funded support for higher education, like management studies (Chon, 2014). This can not only make employees more motivated but also improve the quality of skilled human resources within the organization.

Conclusions:

It can be concluded that the policies of IKEA focus on individuality and acknowledging and respecting each employee as a unique individual. This makes growth and development of employees much easier. The performance appraisal tool used by IKEA is the 360 degree feedback system. This provides an all-round detailed picture of an employee’s performance. The company uses a tool called Index coordination skills to assess managers. This is an open tool that allows managers to see their defects and issues. IKEA’s rewards system is focused upon meeting individual needs and preferences of employees. It is not a standardized policy and has a personal and individual appeal. The managers play a direct role in the incentive system. Employees know that working at IKEA is going to provide ample growth opportunities. The salaries are above the industry average and career development opportunities are fair and depend directly on employee performances, not on factors like hierarchy, seniority, age, etc. Thus, it can be understood that the performance appraisal system and rewards system of IKEA are quite unique and focuses on meeting individual needs of employees. The company has started new trends too, like its pension fund bonus program. IKEA can improve its performance appraisal system by introducing a fluid, warm, two way communication based approach in which managers will discuss performances with employees at a one to one level. A strategy that can improve the rewards system is allowing the employees to directly choose their rewards.

 
References:

Bays, R. (2015).“IKEA's Innovative Human Resource Management Practices and Work Culture.” UK: ICMR.

Chon, G. (2014). "IKEA's new chairman likes PAX wardrobes, and that's about all we know". USA: Quartz.

Chopra, C. (2015). “IKEA- A HRM case study.” UK: Staffs.

Collins, L. (2015). "House Perfect". USA: The New Yorker.

Cunningham, L. (2016). “In big move, Accenture will get rid of annual performance reviews and rankings.” USA: Washington Post.

Fortune.(2015). “The 100 best companies to work for.” USA: Fortune.

Hawkes, S. (2015). “Ikea rewards thousands of staff with pension bonus.” UK: The Telegraph.

Kats, C. (2015). “What Management Lessons IKEA’s HR Strategy can teach us.” UK: Medium.

Kay, M. (2014).“Management interaction the key to HR success at IKEA.” USA: Human Capital.

Singh, A. (2015). “Innovative HR Practices at IKEA.” UK: Slide share.

Smith, J. (2015). “The Best Retail Companies To Work For.” USA: Forbes.

YouSigma.(2014). “IKEA’s Rewards Program."Yousigma.com.

 
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The history of Starbucks suggests that the company has seen many failures and losses in the past. The major reason behind losses is the company’s practices. The practices of the company were not focussed on environment and society. The objectives of the company were totally focussed on quality and operations and there was no mention about the social responsibility or ethics. The company claimed itself as an ethically strong company that has so much concern for the environment but its customers did not believe that. The customers of Starbucks have a very different opinion about its image. There are many people who have questioned about the sustainability of the Starbucks. Many researches showed that Starbucks has been accused of violating ethics and at the same time it has not followed social responsibility norms. The customers also alleged that Starbucks is self-centred, arrogant and intrusive company. Due to all these allegation it has become very important for the company to make it clear to the stakeholders that it has its core values and ethical norms (Wible, 2011).

After its initial years of operations and allegations about unethical practices and being self-centred the company realised the importance of social responsibility. This made it very important for the company to be very concerned about the social responsibility in its overall corporate strategy. If the company would not have been so much concerned about the social responsibility then its image would kept on deteriorating and this impacts the brand image of the company to a very great extent (Karna & Hansen, 2003). The need to become socially responsible aroused from the fact that, for long term strategic operations it is very important for a company to follow these norms. The company has now included social responsibility in its overall corporate strategy to make its positive brand image and also to make a loyal customer base. This is also important for the company to depict that it is not self-centred rather it is concerned about the society as well as the environment. After making this image of being socially responsible the company is able to achieve competitive advantage as well. In this manner there are a number of reasons why Starbucks is very concerned about the social responsibility and it is an integral part of the business activities of the company.

Starbucks is unique in providing high level benefits to its employees and this is clear with the employees’ policies that the company follows. The employees working with Starbucks get a number of benefits such as medical, dental, health and vision. The company also has a provision of bean stock. The company provides the employees who work for than 20 hours in a week with an option of receiving bean stocks.  The company also believes that a strong business can only be built if there is support and participation from the employees. This is the major reason why company motivated employees to participate in various business aspects. This enables employees to feel that are important as well as valued in the organisation. Along with that it also makes business practices strong and this is the reason why company has special policies for its employees. Not every organisation has a policy of employees’ participation in decision making (Vaaland et al., 2008).This is why Starbucks is unique in its policies for employees. This is said to be unique because not many organisations are able to do that for their employees and their wellbeing.

The company follows a very strong stance for employees and it suggests that “we are not in the coffee business serving people, but in the people business serving coffee”. This is something that the company has a very unique policy for the betterment of its employees. It’s not only about fringe benefits but also about recognition and work life balance of the employees. The company makes sure that there is friendly environment in the company so that the productivity of the employees does not get affected. The employees of the company are very happy and satisfied with the policies of the company and this also suggests that Starbucks has unique policies for its employees. The turnover rate of the company is very low besides that fact that employees belong to diversified portfolio and this is only because of the high level benefits provided to the employees. The human resource policies of the company are such that employees are provided opportunities for the advancement and pursue their career further. The employees are also asked for their suggestions and feedback and all these features of human resource management makes the company unique in providing high level benefits to its workforce (Stella, 2010).

Yes it is true that Starbucks has been able to achieve success rapidly because of its socially and ethically responsible activities. It is not true that its success is attributed to the delivery of the products as per the requirements of the customers. This is because of the fact that initially the company was delivering products as per the needs of the customers but it was not successful. The company was questioned for its ethical stance and due to that it also suffered losses. The major reason behind losses is the company’s practices. The practices of the company were not focussed on environment and society. The objectives of the company were totally focussed on quality and operations and there was no mention about the social responsibility or ethics. The company was delivering products as per customers demand but then many customers alleged the company by saying that it is self-centred. After this the company changed its policies and took many decisions in favour of environmental and society. The company decided to give back to the society and with that the company decided to give various benefits to the regions from where it is acquiring its Coffee beans. This helped the company to make a very good image among stakeholders. The company is now focussed to serve the community well and by doing that the goodwill of the company enhances. For all its investment in social causes and community causes the company is able to deliver value to the stakeholders and in return this is adding to the value chain of the company. This value is the reason why company has achieved huge success in limited time (Morgeson et al., 2013).

It is also said that the most significant pillars of the Starbucks is treating well to the partners and contributing to the communities and environment. The company also contributes to CARE relief fund and it has partnered with a number of non-profit and international organisations so that it can give back to the society. The company is also helping farmers by giving them extra share and this has been proved to be beneficial for both the company as well as the farmers. These are only a few aspects that suggest that Starbucks has been able to achieve success because of its socially and ethically responsible activities. The company would not have been able to achieve rapid success if its corporate social responsibility would not have been in place.

 
References

Karna, J. & Hansen, E., 2003. Social responsibility in environmental marketing planning. European Journal of Marketing, 37(5), pp.848-71.

Morgeson, F., Aguinis, H. & Waldman, D., 2013. Extending Corporate Social Responsibility Research to the Human Resource Management and Organisational Behaviour Domains : A look to the future. Wiley Online Library , 66(4), pp.805-24.

Stella, C., 2010. Ethics and marketing in corporates. Journa of advertising and selling , 8(2), pp.26-30.

Vaaland, T., Heide, M. & Gronhaug, K., 2008. Corporate social responsibility: investigating theory and research in the marketing context. European Journal of Marketing, 42(9), pp.927-53.

Wible, A., 2011. ‘It’s all on sale: marketing ethics and the perpetually fooled. Journal of business ethics.

 
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The New Belgium Company has a very strong concern for the environment. The company is first fully wind-powered brewery in United States. The company is doing a lot of things for the environment. The company has installed a smart grid that enables the NBB to communicate with the electricity provider so as to conserve energy. The smart grid alerts NBB about its non-operational functions and thus power can be saved by that. The company has started thinking sustainably since its inception. This is the reason that it is able to strike proper balance among Triple Bottom Line aspects. The company has also installed sun tubes and due to that it is again able to save electricity because sufficient light is available in day time. They have such a system that enables the company to save more water. The core belief of the company includes that fact that it wants to become role model by bringing environmental change and social change. Thus the major environmental issues that the company is working to address include energy conservation, preventing wastage of water and adopting such a practice for production that helps the company in reducing air pollution or any other kind of damage to the environment (Morgeson et al., 2013).

The company has adopted various strategies to deal with the environmental issues that it is facing. The company has adopted the strategy of recycle, reduce and reuse. This strategy is followed by all the employees in the company. The company is able to recycle its 99.9 percent wastes and the electricity that the company uses comes from renewable sources of energy.  This suggests that the company has a very strong strategic framework to address environmental issues. The company is also planning to reduce its carbon emission and for that the company ahs adopted the strategy of recycle, reduce and reuse. The company also has a sustainable purchasing guideline and this guideline helps employees to work in an environmental friendly manner through entire values chain.

The company has taken a very strong stance towards sustainability because of the fact that breweries are often termed s the enterprises that do not have ethical stance and they are considered to be socially irresponsible. The company wants to make a clear image and due to that it is very important for it to take a very strong stance towards sustainability. This will help the company in making its image fair and at the same time the goodwill of the company will also increase. The vision and mission of the company also supports the sustainability and eco-friendly operations and that makes it vital for the company to prove this to stakeholders. The most significant reason behind taking a very strong stance towards sustainability is that the founders of the company have decided that this corporation shall be equally liable to the society and philanthropic activities are its core activities and due to that it is important to make string strategies.

Yes it is true that the focus of New Belgium on social responsibility enables it to achieve competitive advantage for the company. This is because of the fact that in brewing industry the company is able to make its unique position due to its sustainability practices and this unique image is creating fair picture of the company among various stakeholders (Karna & Hansen, 2003). Due to the fair image of the company it is achieving a number of advantages. The foremost advantage of this is that the customer base of the company is increasing continuously. At the same time the company’s customer base is very loyal. With these practices the company is also able to achieve recognition which is very important for an organization in the long run. The company has won many awards for its concern for the environment. This also enables competitive advantage to the company. It is also true that the company is facing tough competition from many companies at present but it does not indicate that there are no chances of winning them. Sustainable practices initially affect the profitable of the company to some extent but later on in the long term the benefits of sustainability are immense. In long term it will enable the company to reduce cost and by reducing the costs the company will be able to focus on expansion and intense marketing campaign and thereby achieving competitive advantage.

If a company is socially responsible then it catches attention of the customers significantly and this is also true in case of New Belgium. The company is doing so much for the environment and it’s all the operations run in environmental friendly manner and due to that it is easy for the company to justify its practices and call itself a socially responsible company. This has helped the company to become very popular choice among customers and only because of its strict guidelines for sustainability the company achieved this success (Corey et al., 2011). Thus it can be claimed without any doubt that the focus of New Belgium on social responsibility enables it to achieve competitive advantage for the company. No competitors of New Belgium are doing so much in the direction of sustainability and because of this the company is the first choice of a number of customers in the market.

It is true that the companies that sell alcoholic beverages and tobacco products are not termed as socially responsible due to their nature of primary products but it is also true that New Belgium’s initiatives and action are totally socially responsible. There are a number of reasons behind this. Firstly, the company has sustainable guidelines and most of its activities are performed on the basis of environmental concern rather than profit concern. The company has depicted that it is equally responsible for the people as well as the environment. The TBL guideline of the company is very strict and all the employees are expected to follow the guidelines. The company has adopted the strategy of recycle, reduce and reuse. This strategy is followed by all the employees in the company. This prevents wastage of resources as well as enables to create healthy environment. The company is able to recycle its 99.9 percent wastes and the electricity that the company uses comes from renewable sources of energy. The company also undertakes various philanthropic activities. For every barrel of beer sold every year the company donates $1 for philanthropic activities. The company also participates for 1% for the planet. Along with all these factors the company also have a committee that looks after its philanthropic activities and environmental concerns. The company is also working to address include energy conservation, preventing wastage of water and adopting such a practice for production that helps the company in reducing air pollution (Wible, 2011). The company also takes various initiatives for its employees. There are free tours, training, beers, etc, given to the employees so that they can maintain work life balance in a significant manner. All these aspects suggest that the company has taken various initiatives to become a company that cares for the society as well as the environment.

References

Corey, G., Corey, M. & Callahan, P., 2011. Issues and Ethics in the helping Professions. Belmont: Brooks/Cole, pp.1-587.

Karna, J. & Hansen, E., 2003. Social responsibility in environmental marketing planning. European Journal of Marketing, 37(5), pp.848-71.

Morgeson, F., Aguinis, H. & Waldman, D., 2013. Extending Corporate Social Responsibility Research to the Human Resource Management and Organisational Behaviour Domains : A look to the future. Wiley Online Library , 66(4), pp.805-24.

Wible, A., 2011. ‘It’s all on sale: marketing ethics and the perpetually fooled. Journal of business ethics.


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Case study

Insert Name

Institution 

The pathophysiology of Mr. Jensen’s post-operative hypovolemia

Mr. Jensen’s post-operative hypovolemia state is caused by the excessive bleeding common with fracture patients in the aftermath of fracture fixation. The pathophysiological process of Jensen’s post-operative state is comprehensive. First, hypovolemia is a condition whereby a patient’s level of blood reduces with a constant level of haemoglobin concentration. The excessive loss of blood led to the hypovolemia, which is also associated with a decrease in cardiac output and venous oxygen tension. According to Dunning (2014), the normal blood pressure of a person is 120/80 mm Hg. However, Jensen’s post-operative blood pressure was 104/55mm. This is a reflection of the substantial decrease of blood volume in the body due to hypovolemia. Additionally, the right leg was too cool to touch because of the reduction in the blood, which usually helps in thermoregulation. The hemorrhage experienced by Jensen culminated in a reduction in cardiac output. Additionally, the post-operative bleeding led to the impairment of the supply of oxygen to body tissues. In this regard, the oxygen utilization process is vital to underscore the impact of hypovolemia in Jensen. The total oxygen delivery is subject to the cardiac index and the arterial oxygen content. According to  Brandstrup (2012), arterial oxygen content is subject to the hemoglobin concentration in blood and hemoglobin oxygen saturation (Sao2). Additionally, the arterial oxygen content is also subject to the partial pressure of oxygen in the arterial blood. In Jensen’s case, the hemoglobin oxygen concentration is normal at 95% because a normal hemoglobin oxygen concentration for an adult is (95-100) %. This is a clear indication of the condition of hypovolemia, whereby the hemoglobin concentration in blood is constant as the blood volume decreases. In a normal setting, the body’s systemic oxygen consumption is almost equal to the metabolic rate of an individual.

In Jensen’s case, the blood loss deprived the body of energy and, led to the inadequate exchange of energy between the body tissues and the blood. Inzucchi et al. (2012) asserts that the hypovolemia state of the patient led to the increases of the fraction of inspired oxygen. The rate had to be maintained at a minimum of 6L/hr because of the state of the patient. The fact that Jensen was losing high volumes of blood meant that an ideal nasal canula had to be used to enhance high rate of inhalation to boost metabolism. In fact, the patient’s post-operative assessment reveals that the FiO2 rate was 6L/hr, which is an acceptable rate. However, there is need for use of a better nasal canula, which could boost the amount of oxygen inhaled. The canula used should also be designed in a way that carbon dioxide is not retained and inhaled. There is need for the improvement of the fraction of inspired oxygen. Therefore, the cardiac output leads to a substantial decrease in the supply of oxygen to various body tissues especially muscle tissues. The capillaries are left open leading to a failure to maintain the optimum tissue oxygen flux. Eventually there is a failure by the mitochondria to sustain the aerobic metabolism in the body.

In Wittenberg (2015) asserts that the normal urine output is (0.5-1) ml/kg/hr. Jensen’s is 1ml/kg/hr. This indicates that the urine output of the patient is on the high limit. Urinal output is closely relayed with the body’s metabolic rate. The high urine output is attributed to the reduction in blood in the body, which has increased the utilization of the low level of blood in performance of extra tasks. The low blood led to the reduction in blood pressure. The patient’s body temperature is 37.90C. The normal range of body temperature is (36.1-37.2) 0C. Therefore, Jensen’s body temperature is abnormally high because of the hypovolemia shock and increased rate of metabolism. The increased rate of metabolism is natural response of the body to a detection of low energy level in the body. However, there is frustration of such body process because the medium of energy is apparently inadequate. The infusion of fluids is vital, in this case, to enhance adequate nutrients in the body.

Hartman’s solution running at 125mls/hr via triple lumen central line situated in the right internal jugular is a manifestation of the Jensen’s need of mineral and nutrient. Such a solution is the best for a person who has undergone a fracture fixation. The solution is usually concentrated with minerals and nutrients. Jensen was also a diabetes-2 patient and was under medication. The patient’s glucose is also at 17.1mmol/L. However, the normal glucose level for a healthy adult is 11.1mmol/L (Lena, 2012). The post-operative glucose result indicates that Jensen has a high blood sugar level. The high blood sugar level is an indication of low insulin level or resistance of the patient’s insulin. For this reason, Jensen has type-2 diabetes hence the need for infusion of Insulin and dextrose infusion running at 2mls/hr (2 units/hr). Jensen’s pain level is at 7. The pain level is considerably high hence the need for administration of sedatives like morphine. According to Fraser, Brown, Forster and Brown (2014), morphine creates a barrier between the brain and blood. Consequently, the brain cannot receive the pain signals from the fractured area.

Prioritization of Jensen’s problems

Mr. Jensen’s severe pain should be attended to, by the physician before anything else because Jensen’s pain is at extreme level. Pain management of the patient should be prioritized because it will enhance the cooperation of the patient in treatment of their aspects. The hypovolemia problem should be resolved through infusion of blood of a blood group matching the patient’s blood group. However, the administration of Hartman’s solution should be maintained to enhance the patient’s stability. A low level of blood is risky because of the critical role of blood in the body’s physiological processes especially metabolism (Braun and Anderson, 2013). Additionally, the blood will enhance Jensen’s stability through the supply of energy to various body tissues. Adequate blood will stabilize the blood pressure of Jensen, which has dropped to a low level of 104/55mm. The infusion of blood for Jensen will help in the resilience of the patient’s heart beat rate, fraction of inspired oxygen, blood pressure and the body temperature. The normalization of the variables will enhance the recuperation of the patient in due time. The blood infusion is also critical compared to all other medical measures to be taken because Jensen will die if blood goes below a certain threshold. Death will render all other medical procedures null.

The reduction of the high glucose level in blood will also be vital because of the disturbance it causes in the physiology of the body. Lewis and Foley (2014) assert that the dysfunction of the insulin compromises the functioning of the kidney. Additionally, the body’s nutrient reserve is inadequate. The reduction of blood sugar is vital to prevent the formation of ketones. Additionally, there reduction of sugar reduces the restlessness associated with high glucose level in blood. Confusion is also prevented when the blood sugar level is reduced. The formation of ketones leads to the swelling of the brain and oedema. According to Kosova, Bergmark and Piazza (2015), the high blood sugar level will also lead to micro-vascular and macro-vascular diseases in the long-run. It can also lead to death in extreme cases.  The other problem of concern is the treatment of the fracture site, which is oozing with serous. The treatment will avoid the infection of the wound with germs. Additionally, the inflammation of the right leg will be reduced through the application of appropriate drugs.


Nursing goals

The pain problem of Jensen will require a pain relieving drug to ensure that the patient is at ease. The pain reliever will also enable the patient to cooperate in the subsequent treatments. According to Crossan and  Cole (2013), morphine cannot be used in pain management for a person who has a renal complication given that he was diagnose with diabetes mellitus in the past two years. The problem of hypovolemia will be resolved through a continuous intake of the Hartman’s solution and his blood group transfusion. The intake of Hartman’s solution ensures that he attains his normal blood level, which will lead to resilience in other variables including blood pressure and body temperature, metabolic rate and heart-beat rate (Atlee, 2012). The high glucose level will be resolved through the infusion of insulin to ensure that the extra glucose is converted into glycogen for storage in the liver for future use. The serous oozing will be stopped through cleaning of the body part and application of appropriate drug. The inflammation of the right leg will be reduced after the blood transfusion. The swelling was caused by the opening of the capillaries.

Literature review

According to Rejeski et al. (2012), the extracellular fluid volume deficiency problem can be eliminated through the continuous intake of the Hartman’s solution. The intake of the solution will compensate an individual for the loss of fluid after an operation. Additionally, it is important to have a plan on subsequent fluid intake. The individual suffering of hypovolemia must be conscious of his situation to ensure body hydration at all time. A personal initiative is crucial because of the need for quick regaining of the normal fluid level. The aspect of hypovolemia requires the patient’s preferred drink, which helps in the boosting of body fluid. The favorite drink will enhance adequate intake of the fluids hence quick recovery. The other measure, which can enhance the achievement of adequate body fluid, is the oxygenation through the use of the nasal canals, which prevent inhalation and retention of carbon dioxide (Allen, 2012). Additionally, the there is need for a good ventilation to enhance adequate oxygenation.

A balanced diet will also helps in quick recuperation from the hypovolemia state. The most reliable remedy to achieve normal body fluid is the infusion of hypertonic saline solution.  The frequent intake of water is also vital to achieve a normal fluid level within the body. The   replacement fluids contain sodium lactate, which is similar to the extracellular fluid (Doherty and Buggy, 2012). There are few adverse effects of replacement fluids to the patients especially the post-operative cases. However, when the replacement fluid is used the volume administer must be triple the blood lost because just a third f the fluid remain within the cells. Sodium lactate is vital because it also helps in the hydration process. Hartman’s solution has lactate, which contains a bicarbonate precursor (Ding,   He, &  Xiao, 2013). However, the lactate never results in acidosis given that the solution also contains the sodium ion.

According to  Patil et al.(2012), the normal blood sugar level can be achieved through the infusion of insulin. Additionally, self-monitoring of the eating of sugary foods is also vital. Self-monitoring is the ultimate solution to high blood sugar level because it is important it enhances consciousness of the hyperglycemia state. The consciousness also serves as psychotherapy for the patients because they understand their situation. The adherence to insulin regimes is also vital because overdose has side-effects. The problem of hyperglycemia can be caused by several factors hence it is important for the patient to seek medical advice before taking of the insulin regimens (Perrier et al, 2013). Medical advice is vital because it makes the patient certain of the case of the high blood sugar. The cooperation between a doctor and the patient in the treatment of diabetes is vital.

According to Inzucchi, Bergenstal & Buse (2012), the monitoring of the blood glucose is vital because it guarantees early control of the diabetes. Exercise is also vital in achievement of normal glucose levels. Exercise leads to burning of excessive calories in blood. The continuous monitoring of the blood sugar level is also vital because it can easily lead to the detection of ketones in blood. When the blood glucose level exceeds 240mg/dl the patient must be having ketones in blood (Australian Diabetes Educators Association, 2016). Therefore, exercise is also limited in such cases. When a person excesses while having ketones in blood, the blood sugar level also increases exacerbating the hyperglycemia. The dietician is required for a person with high blood sugar level.  The dietician will provide reliable guidance on the foods to take in order to achieve normal level of glucose in blood.

 
References

Allen, D.B. (2012). A Clinical Trial to Maintain Glycemic Control in Youth with Type 2

            Diabetes, Nursing England  Journal of Medicine, Vol.366(1), p.2247-2256. Retrieved from: http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/Nejmoa1109333#t=article

Atlee, J. L. (2012). Complications in anesthesia. Philadelphia: Elsevier/Saunders.

Australian Diabetes Educators Association (ADEA). (2016). Diabetes Care, p.1-5. Retrieved from: https://www.adea.com.au/about-us/our-publications/

 Brandstrup, B.  Svendsen, B.E., Rasmussen, M. & Belhage, B.. (2012). Which goal for fluid

            therapy during colorectal surgery is followed by the best outcome: near-maximal stroke

            volume or zero fluid balance?, British Journal of  Anaesthesia, Vol.109 (2), p.191-199.

            Retrieved from: http://bja.oxfordjournals.org/content/109/2/191.short

Braun, C. A., & Anderson, C. M. (2013). Pathophysiology: Functional alterations in human

            health. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Brown, D., Edwards, H. Seaton, L. & Buckley, T. (Eds). (2014). Lewis's medical-surgical

            nursing: Assessment and management of clinical problems (4th ed.). Marrickville:

            Mosby.

Crossan, L.&  Cole, E. (2013). Nursing challenges with a severely injured patient in critical care,
            Vol.18(5), p.236–24. Retrieved from:

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/nicc.12019/full

 Ding, L.,   He, Z.&  Xiao, H. (2013). Risk Factors for Postoperative Wound Complications of

            Calcaneal Fractures Following Plate Fixation, The Official Journal of the AOFAS,

            2013 vol. 34 no. 9 1238-1244. Retrieved from: http://fai.sagepub.com/content/34/9/1238.short

Doherty, M. and Buggy, D.J. (2012). Intraoperative fluids: how much is too much? British

            Journal of  Anaesthesia, Vol. 109(1), p. 69-79. Retrieved from:

http://bja.oxfordjournals.org/content/109/1/69.short                                                                         

Dunning, T. (2014). Care of people with diabetes: A manual of nursing practice. Chichester,

            West Sussex: Wiley Blackwell.

Fraser, J., Brown, D., Forster, E & Brown, N. (2014). Paediatric Nursing in Australia:

            Principles for practice. Cambridge University Press: Melbourne.

In Wittenberg, E. (2015). Textbook of palliative care communication. Philadelphia, PA:

            Elsevier/Saunders.

Inzucchi, S.E., Bergenstal, R.M.&  Buse, J.B.(2012). Management of Hyperglycemia in Type 2

            Diabetes: A Patient-Centered Approach, Nursing England  Journal of Medicine,

            35(6): 1364-1379. Retrieved from:

http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/35/6/1364.short

 

Inzucchi, S.E., Bergenstal, R.M., Buse, J.B.& Diamant, M. (2012). Management of

            hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetes: a patient-centered approach. Position statement of the

            American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of

            Diabetes (EASD),  Diabetologia, Vol. 55(6), p.1577–1596. Retrieved from:

http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00125-012-2534-0

Kosova, E.,  Bergmark, B. and Piazza, G. (2015).Fat Embolism Syndrome, Circulation, p.1-5.

            Retrieved from:

http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/131/3/317.short

Lena M.S. (2012). Bariatric Surgery and Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes in Swedish Obese
            Subjects, Nursing England  Journal of Medicine ,Vol.367(1), p.695-704. Retrieved from:

http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/nejmoa1112082#t=article

Lewis, P.A., & Foley, D. (eds) (2014). Health Assessment in Nursing e2. Broadway, N.S.W.:

            Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.

Patil, H.R,  MD,   Al Badarin, F.J.,   Hamza, M.D.&  Al Shami, A.(2012).  Meta-Analysis of

            Effect of Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors on Cardiovascular Risk in Type 2 Diabetes

            Mellitus, The American Journal of Cardiology, Vol.110(6), p.826–833. Retrieved from:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0002914912013446

Perrier, E.,  Rondeau, P.,  Poupin, M. & Le Bellego, L.(2013). Body composition, energy
            expenditure and physical activity: Relation between urinary hydration biomarkers and
            total fluid intake in healthy adults, European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol.67,
            p.939–943. Retrieved from:

http://www.nature.com/ejcn/journal/v67/n9/abs/ejcn201393a.html

Rejeski, W.J., Ip, E.H.,  Bertoni, A.G., Bray,  G.A.& Evans,  G.(2012). Lifestyle Change and
            Mobility in Obese Adults with Type 2 Diabetes, Nursing England Journal of  Medicine,
            V ol.366(1), p.1209-1217.
            Retrieved from: http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/nejmoa1110294#t=article

 
 I can do your assignments, projects and academic papers can do your assignments, projects and academic papers. This is my Skype ID: sabir.shah74 and this is my Email: sabirshah4545@gmail.com  I have done more than 1000 projects in the last three years. I'm very good in doing different kinds of projects and for academic writing I can provide you Turnitin report as well.  Here are some of  my projects which I have done So far.


 
According to IFRS, the estimated costs of dismantling, removing or restoring items of assets like plant and equipment entail the costs associated with dismantling. This also involves management of the costs in terms of dislocating the assets while restring the site on which it is located is obligatory to be included in the cost of the item of property, plant and equipment.

 

Cost of major inspections – Such kind of costs are involved in the management of the cost of inspection while including the carrying amount of property, plant and equipment as the replacement, if recognition criteria are satisfied and any remaining carrying amount of the cost of preceding inspection is de-recognized. There is a need to include these costs within the management of the work parameters.

 

Identification of Fixed Assets – There is needed to recognize the fixed assets in terms of the management of the purpose of being used in respect of producing or providing goods or services and is not held for sale in the normal course of business. However an enterprise may decide to record as an expense an item which could otherwise have been included in fixed asset, because the amount of the expenditure is not material.

 

Major spare parts – Whereas the Spare parts may be recognized as Property, Plant and Equipment [PPE] if the same meets the criteria/definition of PPE. Otherwise such items are classified as inventory.

 

Costs to be capitalized–the cost to be directly attributable may be capitalized only till the asset is capable of use in the manner intended by company. Therefore, when an asset is purchased or constructed and becomes operative in the manner immediately, costs incurred whilst the asset is standing idle may not be capitalized.

Depreciation – PPE are depreciated separately and there is no concept of minimum statutory depreciation.

 

Compensation for impairment – in the event of compensation from other parties for impairment/loss of items of property, plant and equipment then the same to be included in profit or loss when the compensation becomes receivable.

 

Reassessment of useful life and depreciation method – It requires annual revision of useful life of property, plant and equipment and depreciation method.

 
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Mental health recovery Journey

Insert Name

Insert Institution’s Name

Introduction

The journey of mental health recovery is the responsibility of both the nurse and the consumer. It is important for both the stakeholders to develop a recovery plan where the consumer communicates easily on what is meaningful. This plan will generally guide the mental health recovery process. Therefore, the essay will critically assess my recovery plan apart from discussing the obstacles that hindered me from attaining the specific objectives as well as those elements that assisted me in realizing the specific objectives. A short and precise explanation will be provided on how I felt to narrate my story while working closely with the new supporter. Moreover, my discussion will also focus on the external and internal parameters that influenced the success of my journey to recovery as anchored in reflective practice. It is worth to note that the essay focuses on critical review of mental health recovery as emphasized by the holistic model approach. This will generally facilitate comparison of my journey to recovery with the medical model approach. In summary, I will give a description of my personal perception of mental health recovery in relation to nursing practice while at the same time illustrating the significance of relationship building as a therapeutic process.

Developing a recovery plan

I do believe that there are approximately three components which are essential for mental health recovery as illustrated in figure 2

In figure 1, I can say that my ultimate outcome from my plan is to feel happy and comfortable despite the life challenges that I am experiencing now and even in the coming future. I have to remain happy at whatever cost. I must fight this mental illness that is retarding my life progress.

[Description: katarinapic]

[Oval: 1. Self-commitment to recovery process: this requires following stepwise plan enough to recovery] 

Figure 1: Mental health recovery depends heavily on these components that needs to be implemented. This may pose a great challenge. However, it is worth to note that the three components are very real as well as achievable.

Self-commitment to recovery process

In my journey towards mental health recovery, self-commitment will be the first step. I believe that mental health recovery relies heavily on taking the initial steps of moving forward so as to improve the mental health and consequently life. It would be essential for the nurse and the consumer to make an agreement and act upon the covenant in a stepwise manner (Allison, Mark & Gary, 2015). This is to emphasize on the objective of the plan. Notably, in most of the cases recovery planning focuses on assessment. The implication is that assessment says a lot about the character of the consumer at that particular time, but it does not give any clue where the consumer is headed to. Therefore, I believe that alternative plans can be drawn to encompass long-term objectives rather than the simple short-term objectives. Ideally, a good recovery plan needs to focus primarily on long-term objectives and at the same time, including the intermediary goals which are less intimidating recovery steps (Mary, Scott & Scott, 2010). This will allow the consumer to take action toward personal recovery.

Self-management and empowerment

In my plan for recovery, I realized that self-management and empowerment form an integral component in the journey to mental health recovery. Self-management implies that an individual like myself should take the necessary actions that will help him/ her live a life that is anchored on the premises of the choices they make (Sue, 2012). On the other hand, empowerment implies that one should take responsibilities and exercise rights in making important choices regarding life. It has been observed that consumers with serious mental disorders sometimes exercise some kind of choices about themselves and actually take the essential steps in their journey to attain complete recovery (Text, 2013). For instance, many consumers are able to manage and control their medication administration.

Holistic personal approach

This part of the plan entails addressing in totality the key aspects of life. These aspects contribute to consumer’s well-being. My perception is that goal-setting will assist consumers to approach the recovery process in a comprehensive manner. This approach offers a systematic way of doing things. I do believe that holistic personal approach should consider all the consumer traits (Nastaran, Ellie & Tracy, 2015).

Assessment 2-Support and Self-Care Journey

Support

The reason why I put myself in the consumer’s shoes is to be able to compare and contrast my own personal experience with that of any other consumer. To start with, I have been struggling with Bulimia since high school. This has seen me struggling with depression throughout my young adult life. Unlike most cases of consumers with mental disorder who seek support from rehabilitation centers, I vented out my sadness and anger onto harming myself. Seeing myself in the mirror made I despised myself even more. My own mind would tell me that am not good enough, pretty enough, thin enough, or smart enough. My nurse realized that I was off the truck in my journey to recovery and referred me to a support center called St. Monica. Unlike many consumers who generally struggled with mental health condition in support centers, I consider myself lucky since I have started treatment early enough before my condition worsen. Notably, many consumers solely rely on family and friends as additional support (Digest, 2016). However, in my case I have the additional advantage of getting support from my fellow students at the university. My recovery has been a success and I owe this to the caring nurses at St. Monica. The nurses assisted me in structuring my daily activities, planning my meals and even learning again how to love myself. Currently, when I start thinking negatively about myself, I get resistant to such thoughts since I am armed with a number of coping skills to help me fight such destructive thoughts. This is the advantage the consumers benefit from by getting support from a mental health care clinic. Today my belief is that anybody struggling with mental disorders can be helped through support either at family level, at school, or in a mental health clinic. Moreover, I can assure fellow consumers that with the right support and even treatment, one is able to recover fully. From my experience at the support center, I have come to realize that fighting destructive behavior associated with mental illness is achievable. This is because the nurses at the support centers also empathize with consumers and are always ready to help (Milbourn, McNamara & Buchanan, 2014).

 
Plan

The reason as to why is should plan and strategies on my mental health recovery journey is based on my experience after coming back home from the mental health clinic. As soon as I was home, I came face to face with loneliness. Like many consumers, I realized that developing a prior plan and following the schedule of the plan can significantly improve the quality of health of a mentally ill person or consumer. However, a post-crisis recovery plan still remains an option for consumers who care to develop and follow such plans (Van Lith, 2014). This I experienced to be a significant step for any consumer in the quest of quick recovery from mental conditions. When I got home from the mental health clinic, my positive steps suffered a setback. I had to be taken to the hospital twice in a span of two days after each discharge. Therefore, my recovery-oriented approach based on my personal recovery goals was to stick to my plan, no matter the crisis I was facing both at home and at work place. This implies that consumers are likely to come to the reality in the community where healing takes some steps backwards unless the journey to recovery is carefully planned, orchestrated and implemented as it is done in a hospital set-up. Consequently, my setting of goals is informed by my experience of setback at home when I was discharged from the clinic. It is worth to note that even in the developing of a post-crisis recovery plan the input of support from counselors at the mental health clinic is vital (Javier, Marcelino, Sergio & Rosario, 2016). This is because the recovery of most of the consumers from a crisis may take long for mental illness is a disease just like any other illness. The implication is that a consumer needs support and assistance starting from the planning stage. This support may be reduced gradually as an individual consumer gets better and even better with time. My perception is that planning in advance makes much sense for dealing with mental health problems at that critical time that may not be foreseen now. This would facilitate rapid recovery and wellness. Finally, it is imperative to note that developing a plan with support from a second party is likely to achieve the needs of both the consumer and the nurse thereby fast-tracking recovery process.

Self-care

The importance of self-care for me as a student is that it is likely to assist me in developing a healthier lifestyle. This can be beneficial to me since it enables me to reduce stress and improve on my physical health which can go a long way in improving my mental health. As a consumer, I have come to realize that fellow students suffering from mental illness are at a very high risk of certain unhealthy behaviors. This is to say, students usually find it difficult and quite challenging in making healthy choices as well as managing stress effectively in the school environment. Self-care comes in handy in assisting fellow students on how to reduce stress levels triggered by academic demands. Self-care generally reduce stress levels by helping the student to improve on skills such as relaxation, time management as well as stress management (Sue, 2012). Notably, studies have shown that a variety of relaxation techniques may be effective in reducing both stress and stress symptoms that are associated with mental illness. In addition, the notion of feeling close and connected to other students is a significant factor during the mental health recovery journey. Research has established that over three quarters of college and university students are overwhelmed or stressed most of the times. Therefore, supportive relationship through self-care is the only option of managing these challenging periods in students’ lives. Furthermore, self-care has always emphasized on physical exercise. Research has shown that regular physical workout lessens mental health risks and also lessens the chronic mental illness symptoms.

On the other hand, nurses are trained on how to take care of mentally ill patients, it is part and parcel of their core duty. However, based on my experience as a practicing nurse, nurses usually portray reluctance in applying self-care principles in their lives. They usually experience difficulty in identifying self-care activities matching their personal interests which may be easily and effectively assimilated into their individual lives. This is despite the fact that self-care can assist the nurse to cope with the inherent stress at workplace. Practicing nurse experience fatigue, tension and exhaustion. Among the practicing nurses there are occupational stresses such as staffing patterns; surrogate decision-making; challenging and unpredictable workspaces; increased paperwork; role ambiguity, protection of the patients’ rights, advanced care planning; greater patient acuity; violence; reduced managerial support as well as role conflict (O’Hare, Davidson, Campbell & Michael, 2013). To help the nurses, workplace models focusing on self-care have been designed to lower stress among the nurses. Such workplace models for nurses have been implemented as well as evaluated and found effective. My experience with the workplace models for nurses is that discussion on the effect of stress on mental health is conducted and then the program, participating nurses are given a wellness plan to address individual needs. Such self-care programs are personalized for individual nurses.

For the consumers, self-care program may be suitable in addressing some of the negative feelings that I experienced in my journey to recovery. During this period of fighting mental health as a consumer, I felt confusion, dread, hesitation, and resentment. These feelings surprised me and made me feel awful with a lot of discomfort. I envisaged that if were to be placed into a self - care program, then my predicament as a consumer would have been sorted effectively and with ease. My responsibility as a father of two children, a part-time nurse as well as a college student overstretched me beyond limits. This made me inquire more about self-care for consumers at a mental health clinic. This is because my attempts to contact my friends and family members through phone calls and emails bore no fruit. From the inquiry I made on self-care for consumers, they were accommodating and I realized that my recovery journey was of importance to the staff at the mental health clinic (Janet, 2014). The feeling of abandonment faded and I became more optimistic. Initially as a consumer I had the feeling that my self-esteem had been negatively impacted due to the fact that my friends and family were ignoring me. I came to think of a consumer of the mental illness service experiencing disillusionment, poor contact and isolation without self-care at his or her disposal. To me the consumer would never ever recover from such predicament. Such predicament would be detrimental to the consumer’s mental health.

 
Conclusion

In my journey towards mental health recovery, self-commitment will be the first step. I believe that mental health recovery relies heavily on taking the initial steps of moving forward so as to improve the mental health and consequently life. Self-management implies that an individual like myself should take the necessary actions that will help him/ her live a life that is anchored on the premises of the choices they make. On the other hand, empowerment implies that one should take responsibilities and exercise rights in making important choices regarding life. My perception is that goal-setting will assist consumers to approach the recovery process in a comprehensive manner. The reason as to why is should plan and strategies on my mental health recovery journey is based on my experience after coming back home from the mental health clinic. As soon as I was home, I came face to face with loneliness. Like many consumers, I realized that developing a prior plan and following the schedule of the plan can significantly improve the quality of health of a mentally ill person or consumer. The importance of self-care for me as a student is that it is likely to assist me in developing a healthier lifestyle. This can be beneficial to me since it enables me to reduce stress and improve on my physical health which can go a long way in improving my mental health. On the other hand, nurses are trained on how to take care of mentally ill patients; it is part and parcel of their core duty. However, based on my experience as a practicing nurse, nurses usually portray reluctance in applying self-care principles in their lives.
 
References

Allison, W., Mark, W., & Gary, L. (2015). People centred, community based integrated care - the perfect mental health recovery journey partner / Centrandose en la gente, comunidad basada en la atención integrada - el perfecto socio de viaje de recuperación de la salud mental. International Journal of Integrated Care, 230-241.

Janet, H. (2014). The Space Between: Making Room for the Unique Voices of Mental Health Consumers within a Standardized Measure of Mental Health Recovery. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 158 - 176.

Javier, S., Marcelino, L., Sergio, G., & Rosario, C. (2016). Does Employment Promote Recovery? Meanings from Work Experience in People Diagnosed with Serious Mental Illness. Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry, 507 - 532.

Mary, K., Scott, L., & Scott, B. (2010). An occupational perspective of the recovery journey in mental health. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 129-134.

Milbourn, B. T., McNamara, B. A., & Buchanan, A. J. (2014). Do the everyday experiences of people with severe mental illness who are 'hard to engage' reflect a journey of personal recovery? Journal of Mental Health, 241-245.

Mental Health Digest., (2016). Findings from University of Canberra Yields New Data on Mental Health (One woman's journey of recovery from mental illnessHopes, back-up plans, rebuilding self and service support). Mental Health Weekly Digest, 58-63.

Mental Health Digest., (2016). Investigators at La Trobe University Have Reported New Data on Mental Health (Recovery as an occupational journey: A scoping review exploring the links between occupational engagement and recovery for people with enduring mental health issues. Mental Health Weekly Digest, 109-113.

Nastaran, D., Ellie, F., & Tracy, F. (2015). Recovery as an occupational journey: A scoping review exploring the links between occupational engagement and recovery for people with enduring mental health issues. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, 378-392.

O’Hare, P., Davidson, G., Campbell, J., & Michael, M.-L. (2013). Implementing mental health law: a comparison of social work practice across three jurisdictions. The Journal of Mental Health Training, Education and Practice, 196 - 207.

Sue, H. (2012). Research watch: recovery as a personal journey: how mental health services are trying to support it. Mental Health and Social Inclusion, 169 - 174.

Text, U. (2013). The Journey Of Mental Health Recovery. Academic OneFile, 1-10.

Van Lith, T. (2014). A meeting with ‘I-Thou’: Exploring the intersection between mental health recovery and art making through a co-operative inquiry. Action Research, 254 - 272.

 
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According to IFRS, the likely costs of disassembling, discarding or refurbishing items of assets like plant and equipment entail the costs associated with disassembling. This also involves management of the costs in terms of dislocating the assets while restring the site on which it is located is obligatory to be counted in the cost of the element of property, plant and equipment.
 
Cost of major inspections – Such kind of costs are involved in the management of the cost of inspection while including the carrying amount of property, plant and equipment as the reinstatement, if recognition criteria are fulfilled and any residual bearing amount of the cost of preceding inspection is de-recognized. There is a need to include these costs within the management of the work parameters.

Identification of Fixed Assets – There is needed to recognize the fixed assets in terms of the management of the purpose of being used in respect of generating or giving goods or services and is not held for transactions in the natural course of business. However a firm may decide to record as an expense an item which could in a different situation have been included in fixed asset, because the amount of the disbursement is not material.

Major spare parts – Whereas the Spare parts may be recognized as Property, Plant and Equipment [PPE] if the same meets the criteria/definition of PPE. Otherwise such items are classified as inventory.

Costs to be capitalized–the cost to be directly attributable may be capitalized only till the asset is qualified to be used in a manner predetermined by the company. Therefore, when an asset is purchased or constructed and becomes operative in the manner immediately, costs incurred whilst the asset is standing idle may not be capitalized.

Depreciation – PPE are depreciated separately and there is no concept of minimum statutory depreciation.

Compensation for impairment – in the event of settlement from other parties for impairment/loss of items of property, plant and equipment then the same to be enclosed in profit or loss when the settlement becomes receivable.

Reassessment of useful life and depreciation method – It requires annual revision of useful life of property, plant and equipment and depreciation method.


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The Butterfly Model and the Red Lotus Health and Well-being Model

According to Eldredge (2), the Health Promotion Model was a strategy created to find ways of maintaining proper health practices and promoting well being, rather than signifying the absence of an illness in the body. This led to the development of various models that were used to describe different ways in which the environment has been used to achieve this goal. Germov (3) says that among the models is the Butterfly Model and the Red Lotus Health and Well-being model. Both are health promotion models that give guidance on the various stages of health promotion activities, from the first stage of need assessments all through to the evaluation stage.

Lupton (4) informs that the Butterfly Model and the Red Lotus Health and Well-being Model are both health promotion models, but also have a distinct difference. According to Eldredge (2), the Butterfly Model basically identifies determinants which impact on one’s life, and even though the model is concerned with the overall wellbeing, the model does not necessarily highlight the topic or terms related to it. On the other hand, the Red Lotus Health and Well-being Model is different in that it involves the incorporation of a system of values and principles, which are applied across the various phases of health promotion, such as identifying health paradigms, needs assessment, planning, implementation and evaluation.

According to Baum (1), the natural environment has been recognized as a key role player in the well being of a living organism through the support of life and health. The evolution of the relationship between the natural environment and health has evolved over time, resulting in the adaptation of a number of ecological models which demonstrate the various external and overlapping determinants of human health Sørensen (5), such as seen in the Butterfly and Red Lotus Models. By incorporating the models, one is able to gain a better understanding of the the ever-changing human health, and how the natural environment participates in the concept.


References

Baum F, Fisher M. Why behavioural health promotion endures despite its failure to reduce health inequities. Sociology of health & illness. 2014 Feb 1;36 (2):213-25.
Eldredge LK, Markham CM, Kok G, Ruiter RA, Parcel GS. Planning health promotion programs: an intervention mapping approach. New York: John Wiley & Sons; 2016
Germov J. Second opinion: an introduction to health sociology| NOVA. The University of Newcastle's Digital Repository.
Lupton D. Health promotion in the digital era: A critical commentary. Health Promotion International. 2015 Mar 1;30 (1):174-83.
Sørensen K, Van den Broucke S, Fullam J, Doyle G, Pelikan J, Slonska Z, Brand H. Health literacy and public health: a systematic review and integration of definitions and models. BMC Public Health. 2012 Jan 25;12(1):1.
 

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 The Butterfly Model and the Red Lotus Health and Well-being Model

According to Eldredge (2), the Health Promotion Model was a strategy created to find ways of maintaining proper health practices and promoting well being, rather than signifying the absence of an illness in the body. This led to the development of various models that were used to describe different ways in which the environment has been used to achieve this goal. Germov (3) says that among the models is the Butterfly Model and the Red Lotus Health and Well-being model. Both are health promotion models that give guidance on the various stages of health promotion activities, from the first stage of need assessments all through to the evaluation stage.

Lupton (4) informs that the Butterfly Model and the Red Lotus Health and Well-being Model are both health promotion models, but also have a distinct difference. According to Eldredge (2), the Butterfly Model basically identifies determinants which impact on one’s life, and even though the model is concerned with the overall wellbeing, the model does not necessarily highlight the topic or terms related to it. On the other hand, the Red Lotus Health and Well-being Model is different in that it involves the incorporation of a system of values and principles, which are applied across the various phases of health promotion, such as identifying health paradigms, needs assessment, planning, implementation and evaluation.

According to Baum (1), the natural environment has been recognized as a key role player in the well being of a living organism through the support of life and health. The evolution of the relationship between the natural environment and health has evolved over time, resulting in the adaptation of a number of ecological models which demonstrate the various external and overlapping determinants of human health Sørensen (5), such as seen in the Butterfly and Red Lotus Models. By incorporating the models, one is able to gain a better understanding of the the ever-changing human health, and how the natural environment participates in the concept.

 
References

Baum F, Fisher M. Why behavioural health promotion endures despite its failure to reduce health inequities. Sociology of health & illness. 2014 Feb 1;36 (2):213-25.
Eldredge LK, Markham CM, Kok G, Ruiter RA, Parcel GS. Planning health promotion programs: an intervention mapping approach. New York: John Wiley & Sons; 2016
Germov J. Second opinion: an introduction to health sociology| NOVA. The University of Newcastle's Digital Repository.
Lupton D. Health promotion in the digital era: A critical commentary. Health Promotion International. 2015 Mar 1;30 (1):174-83.
Sørensen K, Van den Broucke S, Fullam J, Doyle G, Pelikan J, Slonska Z, Brand H. Health literacy and public health: a systematic review and integration of definitions and models. BMC Public Health. 2012 Jan 25;12(1):1.
 
I can do your assignments, projects and academic papers can do your assignments, projects and academic papers. This is my Skype ID: sabir.shah74 and this is my Email: sabirshah4545@gmail.com  I have done more than 1000 projects in the last three years. I'm very good in doing different kinds of projects and for academic writing I can provide you Turnitin report as well.  Here are some of  my projects which I have done So far.


 
Report on guest speakers

Student Name:

Student No:

Submission date:

  
Richard Choy: Richard Choy is the CEO of NAPSTEC. He has worked with engineering and architecture and has very good experience in on site as well as design. He was the federal president of concrete institute of Australia and vice president of building science forum of Australia(Richard, 2016). Mr. Richard explains about NAPSTEC and its related topics which includes about infrastructures and build environment. Luke Crowley: He is from Tasmania Australia. He has completed his bachelor of commerce from the University of Tasmania. Luke Crowley worked in MEAA – a non profit organisation from September 2011 to July 2015. He is working presently in APESMA a civic and social organisation(luke, 2016). Mr. Luke explains about professionals Australia and how professionals can exceed after university. Dario Tomat: He was born in the year 1950 in the hydro – electric city of Wayatinah Tasmania. He has completed his engineering in the year 1975 and has studied bachelor of business administration from 1983 – 1988. He has done his master of business administration from 1992 – 1996. He was the MD of Newood Energy Pty. Ltd in the year 2008(Tomat, 2016). Mr. Dario portrays about technologies that can be used in producing energy from wood. The main link between the topics of these three speakers are they all belong to a non – profit organisation.

Richard Choy explains about NAPSTEC and its specifications. Its industry and government shareholders, specifications those are required for the project and how these can by specified. He also explains about the quality of NAPSTEC and building information modelling. Mr. Richard has covered all the important topics in the presentation. To any infrastructure the quality is main aspect which is very well portrayed by Mr. Richard. He also explains the benefits of NAPSTEC, how specifications have to be made in order to get a good outcome of it. Mr. Luke Crowley explains about non profit organisation professionals Australia. He further explains about the graduate position, remuneration, salaries, about the regulations of industries in Australia, employment contracts, how professionals Australia can help a professional and its role in assisting the members. He has concentrated on all the aspects which helps professionals to understand their roles as well as about the regulations. He also focuses on how to sell ourselves for the jobs which is of great help to the students after graduation. Mr. Dario highlights the properties of wood and the current technologies that are used to produce energy. He further explain about Bio – mass combustion technologies, ORC system, how the fuels are handled. Mr. Dario focuses on how current technologies can be replaced with newer and beneficial techniques which will be helpful to reduce the harm caused to the environment.

According to Richard NAPSTEC believes that 3 – D modelling will help to give a better method of design and communication for the industry but with technological advancement virtual studios provide a whole new experience of the infrastructure can be made.  This is achieved through a 3D video which is played in the Google cardboards(Chris, 2016). These cardboards act as a virtual studio can helps to have a walk through for the building. This is the latest technology which helps to give a good experience. Mr. Luke has focussed on the first impression and the documents that we carry to the interview. But there are other aspects which are more important in an interview to sell yourself like providing solutions to the current scenarios of the company which makes strong impression on interviewer, being confident and enthusiastic, giving practical examples etc. (Monster Career Advice, 2016).  Mr. Dario has mainly focussed on creating energy through woods, but waste - to – energy power plants which burns trash and generate electricity produce more energy when compared to burning wood. It is enough to provide electricity to 1.3 million homes in U.S (Www3.epa.gov, 2016).

The speakers belong to non – profit organisations and are working for the betterment of the society. To increase the quality of infrastructure, to provide guidance to the students after graduation and production of energy through waste wood all these topics are interesting and helpful for the development of the society and thus have appealed to me. 

Mr. Richard has presented on the topic NAPSTEC and its specification. The purpose of the topic is clear and the speaker has covered all the important topics, the sections were properly organised as well as the grammar and language used is easy to understand. Speaker did not focus on background of NAPSTEC and stakeholders. Mr. Luke has given a good explanation about professionals Australia and is convincing as why to prefer PA for their assistance. The speaker has avoided the use of jargon to make it simple to understand. The topics are clearly explained as well as well organised. The Speaker could focus on important topics like selling yourself for the job more than the clauses. Mr. Dario has given very good background information about the topic which helps to understand the topic clearly. The speaker has used jargon and equations which may not be understood by everyone. Speaker has also used images which makes the topic more attractive as well as clear to the audience. The major topics have been covered by speaker and have used proper sources for all the graphs and images. Since the topic has jargons and different processes and cycles summarising the topic at the end would help the students to get an overview of all the topics covered. Possible topics for the future guest speakers may have health care, communication, social justice, women motivational etc(BigSpeak Motivational Speakers Bureau, 2016). All the topics can have speakers from non – profit organisation and thus help for the betterment of the society

References

BigSpeak Motivational Speakers Bureau. (2016). Keynote Speaker Topics - BigSpeak Motivational Speakers Bureau. [online] Available at: https://www.bigspeak.com/keynote-speaker-topics/ [Accessed 20 Sep. 2016].

Chris, (2016). Google releases virtual reality tour of Abbey Road Studios for Cardboard. [online] VentureBeat. Available at: http://venturebeat.com/2016/03/31/google-releases-virtual-reality-tour-of-abbey-road-studios-for-cardboard/ [Accessed 19 Sep. 2016].

luke, (2016). Luke Crowley. [online] Available at: https://www.linkedin.com/in/luke-crowley-998bb140 [Accessed 19 Sep. 2016].

Monster Career Advice. (2016). In a job interview, the way you talk about yourself and your experience is a deciding factor in your success. These six tips will help you say all the right things.. [online] Available at: http://www.monster.com/career-advice/article/sell-yourself-job-interview-hot-jobs [Accessed 19 Sep. 2016].

Richard, (2016). Maximising Value From BIM. [online] Available at: https://www.engineersaustralia.org.au/portal/event/maximising-value-bim-building-information-model [Accessed 19 Sep. 2016].

Tomat, D. (2016). Who Is Dario Tomat?. [online] West-tamar-talk.blogspot.in. Available at: https://west-tamar-talk.blogspot.in/2016/04/who-is-dario-tomat_17.html [Accessed 19 Sep. 2016].

Www3.epa.gov. (2016). Biomass Energy | A Student's Guide to Global Climate Change | US EPA. [online] Available at: https://www3.epa.gov/climatechange/kids/solutions/technologies/biomass.html [Accessed 19 Sep. 2016].

 I can do your assignments, projects and academic papers can do your assignments, projects and academic papers. This is my Skype ID: sabir.shah74 and this is my Email: sabirshah4545@gmail.com  I have done more than 1000 projects in the last three years. I'm very good in doing different kinds of projects and for academic writing I can provide you Turnitin report as well.  Here are some of  my projects which I have done So far.

 
Taxation, Theory, Practice, and Law

Insert Name

Institution

Question 1: CASE STUDY: CAPITAL GAINS TAX

A capital loss or gain in an asset is considered as the difference between the cost to purchase an item or property, and the receipts an individual gains from disposing it. Under, capital gains tax, is payable on all gains on the disposal of properties, as it forms as part of an income. It is classified as a separate tax, and recognised as capital gains tax (CGT) (Australian Taxation Office, 2016). However, when an individual makes losses on the disposal of a property, then no income is made, and thus, capital gains tax cannot be applied to it; however, in the instance that the capital losses surpass the gains for that year, they can be transferred to the next financial period, and deducted from the gross capital gains. In Australia, every asset acquired after 20th September 1985 are subject to capital gains unless particularly excluded by the law, or Finance Minister (French and Price, 2016). Hence, the following question ascertains the CGT for Fred.

Capital Gains Calculations

Presuming that the disposal date for the property is August 2015, which is the date that the contract was signed, under the provisions of s 104-10(3) ITAA97 (Akhtar, 2014).
Capital proceeds from the sale of property are valued at $800,000, according to s 106-20 ITAA97 (French and Price, 2016).

Thus, the cost base elements for Fred are:

1st element: purchase of a holiday house is $100,000 in March 1987.
2nd Element: the incidental costs of the purchase of the holiday home in 1987 entails legal fees $1,000; and duty stamp valued at $2,000. However, it is essential to note that these costs occurred before the commencement of CGT, and thus, CGT does not apply. The incidental costs linked to disposal in August 2015 includes $9,900 real agent fees, and $1,100 legal fees. However, Fred is unlikely to claim the input tax credits on the gross amounts, which includes GST not incorporated in the cost base.
4th element: the expected effect or purpose of the capital expenditure is to preserve or increase the assets value incurred by the building a garage, in January 1990, at a cost of $20,000.

Fred may choose to determine his Capital Gains calculations through the indexation method (Div 114) or discount method (Div 115), as highlighted in ITAA97.

The Frozen Indexation Approach

For Fred to determine his cost base using the indexation approach, he must determine the acquisitions costs, incidental costs, and the enhancement costs, as highlighted below.

The acquisition costs

The acquisitions costs = $100,000 × CPI (2nd Quarter) September 1999 / CPI March 1987 (1st Quarter)

                                    = $100,000 × 68.7/45.3

                                    = $100,000 × 1.517

                                    = $151,700

The incidental costs

Indexation for the real estate commission and legal fees incurred at the time of the sale of the property is not available as it occurred after September, 21st 1999.

Stamp duty (March 1987) = $2,000 × CPI (2nd Quarter) September 1999/CPI March 1987 (1st Quarter)

                                             = $2,000 × 68.7/45.3

                                             = $2,000 × 1.517

                                             =$3,034

Legal fees (March 1987)

= $1,000 × CPI (2nd Quarter) September 1999/CPI March 1987 (1st Quarter)

                                             = $1,000 × 68.7/45.3

                                             = $1,000 × 1.517

                                             =$1,517

Enhancement costs

= $20,000 × CPI (2nd Quarter) September 1999/CPI March 1990 (1st Quarter)

                                             = $20,000 × 68.7/56.2

                                             = $20,000 × 1.222

                                             =$24,440

Thus, the Capital gains, equals to:

Capital Gains = $800,000 – ($151,000 + $1,100 + $9,900 + $3,034 + $1,517 + $24,440)

                                             = $800,000 - $191,691

                                             = $608,309

The Net capital Gain            = &608,309 – (less carry forward loss)

                                             = $598,309

Discount Method

Calculation the net capital gain using the discount approach entails the following:

Capital gain = $800,000 – ($100,000 + $1,100 + $9,900 + $2,000 + $1,000 + $20,000)

                                             = $800,000 - $184,000

                                             = $666,000

Net Capital Gain                  = 50% discount × ($666,000 less the carry forward loss of $10,000).

Thus, Net Capital Gain        = 50% × 656,000

                                             =$328,000

Hence, from the above findings, the Discount method offers Fred the best opportunity to minimise the capital gains payable. As a result, Fred should use the discount approach to determine his capital gains. The GST should be included in the calculation of the capital gains because Fred is not entitled for any tax credits (French and Price, 2016).

If Fred has a net capital loss from the sale of the antique vase; the antique vase should be collectable [(s. 108-109(2)]. However, if the antique vase was bought for $500 or less, then the $10,000 capital loss should be disregarded (Nethercott, Richardson and Devos, 2011). If the antique vase was bought for over $500, the $10,000 capital loss can only be used to offset the capital gains tax from the disposal of another collectable asset [s. 108-10(1)]. In this case, if the loss related to the antique vase was carried forward, it would then be considered a collectible loss, and would only be used to offset against collectable gains, and as Fred’s disposal of the house gives rise to an ordinary gain, the disposal of the antique vase cannot be used to offset against it (Ogawa, Sato and Tamai, 2016).

Notes:

The carrying forward losses should be applied before applying the 50% discount rate.
The inclusive value of GST is utilised in the determination of the cost base because Fred is not entitled to received tax credits for the GST he incurred in legal fees and real estate commissions because he is not registered for the GST, and neither, he is not needed to be registered. In the instance, Fred is registered the sale of the residential property is input taxed supply (McArdle, 2016).
Certain capital losses and gains must be matched against each other. Thus, if the carry forward loss emanates from the sale of antique vase, Fred is not allowed to use it to offset the current financial year capital gains. As per ITAA97 s 108-10, Fred must carry forward the net collectible loss gain. Therefore:

Frozen indexation net capital gain = $608, 392

Fred must carry forward the net collectable gain of $10,000

Using the discount method of ascertaining the net capital gain         = $666,000 × 50%

                                                                                                            = $333,000

(Fred should carry forward the net capital loss of $10,000).

 

Question 2: CASE STUDY 2 FRINGE BENEFIT

The Fringe benefits are significant part of a corporation or business, and it is essential in attracting quality employees. The fringe benefit tax is payable by employers for the benefits that are paid to a worker in place of wages and salaries. The fringe benefits are separate to income tax, and are determined by the fringe benefits offered by the employer (Nethercott, Richardson and Devos, 2011).

Fringe Benefit Tax (FBT)consequences for JB

The car meets the criteria of a fringe benefit, as Emma’s uses the car for her personal use (s. 7 FBTAA) (Woellner, 2013).
In the lack of an election to adopt the cost basis approach, and any other information regarding the method, the statutory formula required is:

Taxable value for the car is     = (0.2 × $33,000 × 330/265)

                                                = (0.2 ×$33,000 × 1.2453)

                                                = $5,967

The base value of the car is the cost worth of the vehicle.
The number of days the car was scheduled for yearly repairs, in this case 330 days is used to calculate the fringe benefit. In this case, the days when the cars is parked at the airport, and the keys were not surrendered to the employer, is still considered for private use (Cortis and Eastman, 2014). Furthermore, the car’s leased by, or owned, or otherwise under the control of the provider. In this case, the car is owned by Periwinkle, and offered to Emma for her business use, as she travel’s a lot. However, in this case, Emma parked the car at the airport for five days, when she had travelled for business, and this does not amount to fringe benefit. This is because the parking, at the airport was not offered as a result of the employee’s employment (Australian Taxation Office, 2016). Also, the car should be parked at, or near the employers place of work during that period, which did not happen in this case. Hence, in this case, the car failed to obtain the fringe benefits related to parking the car at the airport (Woellner et al., 2016).
In this case, Emma was reimbursed for her costs and expenses during the use of the car, and thus, there is no recipient’s contribution (s. 7.100 – 7.130 FBTAA) (Australian Taxation Office, 2016).
The reimbursement for Emma’s car expenses; would generally be considered as an ‘expense payment fringe benefit,’ however, under s. 53 FBTAA
The $500,000 loan

Under Div 4, FBTAA the provision of the loan is considered as the loan fringe benefit.

The taxable value for the loan is: 

                                                = $500,000 × (5.95% -4.45%) × (212/365)

                                                = $500,000 ×1.40% × 1.2453

                                                = $4,356

The taxable value of Emma’s expense payment benefit can be reduced through ‘Otherwise Deductible’ rule. Otherwise deductible occurs when an employee is entitled to claim income tax deductions, if the employer had not incurred for the expense (Woellner et al., 2016). The rule is that to determine whether the employee is entitled to claim income tax deductions, the expense should be incurred in the course of producing or gaining assessable income. Under the ‘otherwise deductible rule’ Emma’s taxable value is not subject to reduction, as she did not use the loan sum to earn accessible income, s. 7.190, s. 7.390, s. 7.170 FTBAA (Australian Taxation Office, 2016).

The purchase of the bathtub at the cost of $1,300

In this case, the bathtub was sold to consumers in the ordinary course of Periwinkle’s business, and hence, under FBTAA, Div 11, it is considered as an ‘in house property fringe benefit’.
Periwinkle manufactures the bathtubs, which are sold to the public under the ordinary course of the business, and thus, is subject to tax. The taxable value for the bathtubs is 75% × $2,600 = $1,950 ($2,600 is the lowest value the bathtub’s are sold to the public).
Furthermore, the taxable value is diminished by an extra $1,300, and this reduces the recipient’s payment to   $650.
Also, assuming that Emma has no other fringe house benefits in that accounting period, the taxable value can be further reduced to zero, under FBTAA s. 62 as it is considered as an ‘in-house fringe benefit’.

Having ascertained the taxable value for every fringe benefit, then it becomes necessary to determine whether the fringe benefit is considered as either type 1 or type 2 benefit. The benefits are classified below:

Car: is considered as a Type 1 benefit, as the figure is considered as GST inclusive, and also, assuming that Periwinkle is entitled to input tax credits (Australian Taxation Office, 2016).
Loan: it is a type 2 benefit. It is a financial supply, and hence, no GST is applicable.
Assuming that the taxable value for the bathtub is diminished to zero (0). The total fringe benefits amount is:

                                 = ($5,967 × 2.0802) + ($4,356 × 1.8868)

                                 = $12, 413 + $8, 219

                                 = $20, 632

The Fringe Benefit Tax liability is 47% × $20,632 = $9,697

As a result, Periwinkle must incur FBT of $9,697 in regards to the above items.

Question 2 (b)

If Emma utilised the $50,000 loan figure to buy shares for herself; rather than, lending it to her husband, the amount would be used for income generating purpose, and thus, the resultant interest would be deductible. In this regard, the taxable value of the fringe benefit from the $50,000 loan would be reduced by 10% ($50,000/$500,000) under s. 19 FBTAA otherwise deductible rule (Australian Taxation Office, 2016).

 
References

Akhtar, S. (2014). Capital Gains Tax in Theory and Practice. VISION : Journal of Indian Taxation, 1(1).

Australian Taxation Office, (2016). Capital gains tax | Australian Taxation Office. [online] Ato.gov.au. Available at: https://www.ato.gov.au/General/Capital-gains-tax/ [Accessed 21 Sep. 2016].

Australian Taxation Office, (2016). Fringe benefits tax (FBT) | Australian Taxation Office. [online] Ato.gov.au. Available at: https://www.ato.gov.au/General/Fringe-benefits-tax-(FBT)/ [Accessed 21 Sep. 2016].

Cortis, N. and Eastman, C. (2014). Salary sacrificing in Australia: are patterns of uptake and benefit different in the not-for-profit sector?. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 53(3), pp.311-330.

French, D. and Price, S. (2016). Depreciation-Related Capital Gains, Differential Tax Rates, and the Market Value of Real Estate Investment Trusts. The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics.

McArdle, D. (2016). ‘You had me at “no capital gains tax on a disposal”’: legal and theoretical aspects of standalone image rights. Legal Studies.

Nethercott, L., Richardson, G. and Devos, K. (2011). Australian taxation study manual. North Ryde, N.S.W.: CCH Australia.

Ogawa, H., Sato, Y. and Tamai, T. (2016). Who gains from capital market integration? Tax competition between unionized and non-unionized countries. Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue canadienne d'économique, 49(1), pp.76-110.

Woellner, R. (2013). Australian taxation law select 2013. North Ryde, N.S.W.: CCH Australia.

Woellner, R., Barkoczy, S., Murphy, S., Evans, C. and Pinto, D. (2016). Australian taxation law 2016. Sydney, Australia: Oxford University Press.


I can do your assignments, projects and academic papers can do your assignments, projects and academic papers. This is my Skype ID: sabir.shah74 and this is my Email: sabirshah4545@gmail.com  I have done more than 1000 projects in the last three years. I'm very good in doing different kinds of projects and for academic writing I can provide you Turnitin report as well.  Here are some of  my projects which I have done So far.
 
Management

Insert Name

Institution

Tutor

Date

Infosys Company

Aggregation

Aggregation is one of the tenets of Ghemawat’s ‘AAA’ strategic model. Aggregation entails the economies of scale of the company. In this regard, Infosys Company is taking part in acquisition deals. The acquisition of the companies is aimed at enhancing the expansion of operation capacity for the company. Infosys firm acquired Paraya and Skava companies, which have improved automation systems.  The company targets the most innovative and emerging Blue-chip companies. According to Appolloni, Mavisu and Tarangapade (2013), the company also targets companies specializing in artificial intelligence. Automation field is also an area of interest for Infosys Company. The company’s target is to achieve productivity improvement through the inclusion of various parties that have embraced technology in their operations. Additionally, Infosys has undertaken a revamp of its processes including the human resource, finance and travel to streamline its operations towards the achievement of economies of scale. The move enhances a reduction in the costs because the overhaul of the various company functions reveals underperforming areas.

Adaptation

Adaptation entails the company’s local responsiveness. Infosys has experienced a good local responsiveness. The company has introduced Blockchain to the local banks as one of the strategies of extending the local influences in India. Banks like the Reserve Bank of India have are the customers of Infosys. The blockchain technology is highly-valued by most of the Indian-based banks. The technology involves the use of a distributed ledger technology. According to  Gupta and Dzharova  (2014), the Indian locals are positively responding to the company’s Edge Verve Systems. The subsidiary is enhancing the delivery of technological services to the financial sector in India. Edge Verve Systems enhances close customer contact, which leads to the identification of the trend of customer needs and preferences. The initiative also serves as the local market research to collect adequate information on the responsiveness of the customers to the company’s technology-based products and services. The banks are capitalizing on the new technology to obtain private ledgers.

Arbitrage

Arbitrate also forms part of Ghemawat’s ‘AAA’ strategic model tenets. Arbitrage underscores the absolute economies of the company. Infosys has made strides in the information technology industry. For instance, the company uses on coding for installation of solar capacity. The initiative is serving to reduce its overall costs and enhance efficiency in service delivery.  Jain and Khurana (2013) assert that Infosys Company’s use of codes for a solar installation is boosting profit making for the company. Additionally, the company is taking advantage of the minimal regulations in the production of solar energy in India. The company also revitalizes employee morale with the aim of improving productivity. The company leverages on its strategies like massive-scale design thinking and training. Additionally, the company practices crowd-sourcing of ideas especially through murmuration. The company has also created Infosys information platform and automation platform with an aim of replacement of edge products. The focus on the revitalization of the Infosys brand is a strategic move to improve productivity. The management of the company emphasizes on innovation and technological improvement in products and service delivery. The shift in the engagement of customers enhances the company’s competitiveness in the global IT sector.

Wipro

Aggregation

The element of aggregation of the ‘AAA’ framework is manifest in the company’s partnership with Infosys to achieve economies of scale. The company’s partnership with Infosys is aimed at boosting the core banking solution for financial institutions. The partnership is corporate and technical in nature because the application constitutes of Infosys’s Infy ‘Finacle’ and Wipro’s system integration facility. The software application is dependent on both companies. In fact, the partnership has already supplied the software application to Vijaya bank, Union Bank of India and Oriental Bank of Commerce. The software application, Infosys ‘Finacle’ is currently used by more than 90 banks in more than 25 countries across the world (Appolloni,  Mavisu and Tarangapade, 2013). The company is also taking part in a risk diversification initiative to reduce the negative impacts of economic condition changes. The diversification of its product portfolio also serves to widen the customer choice, which is a competitive strategy for the IT Company. The acquisition of innovative and creative small and medium-sized enterprises is also enhancing the company’s economies of scale prospects.

Adaptation

The local responsiveness to Wipro’s products and services is high. The product positioning of the company enhances local responsiveness and makes the products appealing to the local customers. The strong influence of the company in Benelux market is an attestation of the company’s local market influence. According to  Gupta and Dzharova  (2014), Wipro employs local teams to enhance company-customer engagement. The local communities are positively responding to the company’s products and service offers because of lack of language barrier and quality of the software products and services. The company also appoints locals in its leadership hierarchies to articulate the needs of the local customers. The Indian market is large and unexplored the participation of locals in the company’s leadership network is strategic. India is a technology hub. For this reason, the company optimizes the business models and technological innovations to achieve success. Moreover, the local market is advantaged in easy access to the services and the company’s bid for reduction of time-to-market.

Arbitrage

Arbitrage is one of Ghemawat’s ‘AAA’ strategic models. Arbitrate entails the absolute economies the company enjoys.  Wipro embraces change in its operations hence it offers quality products and services. The development of disruptive business models enhances continuous improvement in sync with the dynamic nature of the IT sectors. The Wipro company employs more than 150,000, which is a manifestation of excellent human resource management (Manning, 2013). Expert, qualified and motivated employees are a determination of success of any company. The company also capitalizes on product proposition which boosts its software application sales. The initiative also serves to expand its markets. The application of a result-oriented approach in its operations underscores value creation. Moreover, Wipro offers end-to-end support for its clientele. The company’s ethical compliance is an inherent success. Ethics is critical in the attraction of potential clients. The company’s global presence enhances its productivity and performance. The exploration of foreign markets is enhancing the demand for its software application. The company leverages in provision of state-of-the-art offers in smart manufacturing, analytics and testing.

 
List of References

Appolloni, A.,   Mavisu, M., &  Tarangapade, S.K. 2015, Service innovation in Indian

            knowledge-intensive business services: the Wipro case, International Journal of                  Learning and Intellectual Capital , VoL.10(3-4) . Retrieved from:

http://www.inderscienceonline.com/doi/abs/10.1504/IJLIC.2013.057434

Gupta, S. & Dzharova, H. 2014,  Innovation and adaptation: Continuing the Infosys

            journey : In conversation with S. D. Shibulal, Co-founder, CEO & Managing Director,

            Infosys, IIMB Management Review, Volume 26, Issue 4, December 2014, Pages 249–

            256. Retrieved from:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0970389614000871  

Jain, D.M., &  Khurana, R. 2013, "Need for sustainable global business model in software

            outsourcing: The Indian perspective", Business Process Management Journal, Vol. 19(1),

            p.54 – 69. Retrieved from:

http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/14637151311294868

Manning, S. 2013, New Silicon Valleys or a new species? Commoditization of knowledge work

 and the rise of knowledge services clusters, Research Policy, Vol.42(2), p.379–390.

            Retrieved from:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048733312001606
 
I can do your assignments, projects and academic papers can do your assignments, projects and academic papers. This is my Skype ID: sabir.shah74 and this is my Email: sabirshah4545@gmail.com  I have done more than 1000 projects in the last three years. I'm very good in doing different kinds of projects and for academic writing I can provide you Turnitin report as well.  Here are some of  my projects which I have done So far.
 

Product marketing

Insert Name:

Insert Institution:

Abstract

Many business organizations normally have the purpose of making money through strategies that reach different demographic areas and a brand image that is essential for the product purchase by the consumers. In this line, they ensure they meet the various lines and components of a product. A product is divided into three levels which are a series of different benefits and features that help in its segmentation positioning and targeting. As a result, it is the three layers of a product that defines the product in a better manner. On the other hand, the layers of a product include the core product, augmented product, and the actual product. Product concepts are universal business hypotheses that assume that buyers desire products with better performance, quality, and features than the products that are available in the market.


Table of Contents

Introduction. 4

Product lines. 4

Core product 4

Actual product 5

Augmented product 5

Generic and potential levels. 6

Summary of the product concept component 6

Explanation of selected components and their examples. 7

Reasons for believing in the product 7

Attractive headlines. 7

Success factors. 8

Conclusion. 8

References. 9


Introduction

Marketing is the act of displaying the goods and services to the customers so that they can buy the services. Every company always has a goal when creating an advertising or marketing campaign. The marketers normally have the purpose of making money through strategies that reach different demographic areas and a brand image that is essential for the product purchase by the consumers. Total product is the concept of how companies, as well as sell persons, can analyze a product or an idea and sell it in an efficient manner that will meet the sales objectives (Vliet, 2013). It delineates a product using the generic, expected, augmented, and potential product dimensions. This paper presents a detailed analysis of the product lines and product concept components in the process of marketing a particular product in the competitive market.

Product lines

The idea of the three layers of a product comes into play in the final stages of the business product or the product analysis. Like any other business, Martin and Holland (2011) point out that a product also has its layers. The product is divided into three levels which are a series of different benefits and features that help in its segmentation positioning and targeting. As a result, it is the three layers of a product that defines the product in a better manner. These layers include the core product, augmented product, and the actual product. However Vliet (2013) notes that there are five product layers according to Kotler Philip. Kotler adds the generic, potential, augmented, expected, and core products as the major product layers.

Core product

Core product involves the tangible nature and benefits of the product. It is the most essential level, presenting what people set out to purchase as well as the benefits the producer would like the buyers to get from the product. For example, a camera is expected to take a picture while the producer will ensure that the buyer also benefits from the high definition videos, face recognition, and the wide lens among other benefits. It is thus essential for the designers to list the core benefits of a product that will be of importance to the user. On the other hand, launching a car manufacturing unit, the core product would be convenience the car offers to the customers. The customers can as well travel by taxi or bus, but they prefer cars due to convenience and status symbol (Pearson, Nixon &Drongelen, 2010).

Actual product

It is the level two of the product level that translates the core product benefits into the specific products that the customers will purchase. There may be competitors that offer the same product benefits. The actual level is thus aimed at designing products that will persuade the customers to purchase the product. It thus involves deciding on quality level, product features and services, branding, styling, and packaging as pointed out by Guy Lord and Bhasin (2015) For example, there are many smartphones manufacturing companies across the global industries. However, Apple still emerges the best manufacturer with its phones preferred by many customers as a result of the product design. The customers even pre-order or even camp overnight outside the retail stores of the Apple companies so as to be the first ones to buy the product.  In other words, the actual product is what is manufactured after deciding on the choice of the core product. In such a case, a core product with a status symbol will require an actual product with a very high quality and price that can win the status symbol in the market. Actual products can be quantified in nature and have specific properties such as color, quality, branding etc.

Augmented product

It is the level three of the product level involving the decision on the additional non-tangible benefits that can be offered by a product to the user. In his study, Vliet (2013) denotes that the business industry is currently coupled with stiff competition and every organization comes up with strategies to outweigh the others in the market. As a result, the competition is based on the help lines, after sales services, cheap delivery, and warranties. It also means the things that the product may not offer, but customers tend to find them very useful. The non tangibleimportance like the warranties tend to give customers the confidence and also demonstrate the faith the producers have in the quality of the products. However, Mathew (2012) denotes that the ubiquitous importance of some of the augmented benefits has become part of the benefits of level three into the expectation of customers. For example, customers buying cars expect the cars to have the warranties from the manufacturers. Uyeda, Caetano, and Pennell, (2015) also describes the augmented product level as the additional factors that set the product apart from those of thecompetitors. It hence involves the brand image and identity. For example, a court may be warm, of style, good color and fashion trending. However, factors such as warranty, good value, and services also play a big role in the process of winning the customers.

Generic and potential levels

The generic product dimension tends to provide essential benefits addressing the basic function of the product. It is at this level that the client realizes the basic definition of the product as well as the needs it can meet. On the other hand, the potential product dimension tends to consider features of a product and better ways of improvement that can be adopted by the manufacturing company. The objective can be achieved through market research as well as the analysis of the needs of the customers. The manufacturing company can hence update a product once the value added becomes a norm expected by the customers in the market.

It is hence important to note that all the product levels add much value for the customers. The more effort made by the manufacturing companies in all the levels, the more likely the companies will stand the chance of being distinctive. Mathew (2012) notes that at augmented level, many organizations observe competition so as to copy certain tricks and the techniques as well as the appearance of the products from the competitors. It thus makes it increasingly difficult for the consumers to define the differentiation or distinctiveness of the product. As a result, towering over competition requires the manufacturing companies to focus on the factors that the consumers tend to attach extra value to so as to take advantage of the market. These include surprising advertisement, extreme packaging, affordable payment terms, and customer oriented services among others. Becoming unique or standing out in a competitive market thus does not only involve satisfying the buyers or exceeding the market expectations but surprising them as well.

Summary of the component of a product concept

A product concept is defined as a universal hypothesis of a business that assumes that consumers desire a product that has better performance, quality, and features than the services or products that areavailable in the market. It is the major driving force of a business organization to create a cutting-edge of products which are superior to the similar products. For instance, most of the computer manufacturing companies use the product concept in consistently developing software programs and hardware components with better performance than their competitors. Similarly, cosmetic companies, clothing designers, car manufacturers, and cell phone companies are all examples of companies that value the product concept in constantly creating products that outshine other products that are already in the stores (Mathew, 2012).

While the product conceptsare innovation springboards, they as well causea false sense of the production security for the producers and manufacturing companies. For instance, fixing a new gadget in a new car makes the manufacturer to falsely believe that the buying customers are in need of the gadget.  As a result of the line of thinking, Uyeda, Caetano, and Pennell, (2015) point out that the companies might strategize whole marketing plans around the same gadget and come to realize later that the targeted customers are not interested in the gadget. In some cases, those who are interested in the gadget cannot even purchase the car. In such cases, the sales objectives are not realized and the marketing dollars are wasted leading to failure in the whole business plan.

Explanation of selected components and their examples

According to Guy Lord and Bhasin (2016), the product component describes the core purpose of the services or products, the uniqueness, and the promise of fulfilling the unmet customer expectations. It hence provided a factual summary of the benefits of the products and then differentiates the product from other competitors. As a result, the product has three major components, i.e. an attractive headline, benefits of the product, success factors, and reasons for believing in the product.

Reasons for believing in the product

The company should explore the reason as to why the clients can strongly depend onspecific product qualities such as the technical specifications and the quality of the ingredients of the product among other reasons (Mathew, 2012). For example, bicycles can have information on the composite materials within the frame together with its lightweight construction. In other cases, celebrity endorsements can as well be a part of the concept statement for many manufacturing companies. For a laptop, it could be the processor with a high sped, good monitor specifications or hard disk.

Attractive headlines

There is need of us good headline that can attract the attention of buyers in the market when the products are on display or during advertisements. For instance, a headline like the fastest product in the market, or best value in the market today can form a good headline for a product. Once the targeted customers start to pay attention to the product, the concept statement should clearly highlight the importance or benefits of the product to customers. For examples, a laptop may have a superior performance, but uses very little power, hence making the battery to last longer while not connected to the power source.

Success factors

A good product concept statement should be able to evoke feelings and moods withoutexplicitly indicating the purpose or aim of the product, but instead let the buyer visualize the benefit of the product by themselves. It needs to use a simple language and not a technical jargon, should be realistic and clear, according to Pearson, Nixon, and Drongelen, (2010). For example, a bike can have a statement like enjoying the superior performance and handling of the bike at reasonable prices and backed by best business warranties and a 5-year track record and exceptional quality.

Conclusion

The product design personnel have the responsibility of designing a new product in several ways since the company has varying sources of exploring multiple designs and approaches. In the process, the benefit to the consumer should be so clear, so as the bring purpose, cohesion, and clarity to the development and design process. The products should be tested as well as the accompanying marketing statements prior to the launching of the product. The product layers and the product component concepts together helps in ensuring a company tracks the consumer behavior as well as the changes in the consumer preferences. By highlighting the different aspects of the product, the company will be able to adopt effective strategies for influencing the buying behavior of the consumers to their advantages.

 

References

Guylord, T.P, &Bhasin, H. (2016). Three levels of a product, Information Systems Journal, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 421-449. 

Islam, M., &Bordelon, E. P. (2013). CCMS: A Geographically Distributed Concurrent and Configuration Management System. Bell Labs Technical Journal, 8(3), 111-133.

Martin, R., & Holland, D. (2011). Sources of output change in the U.S. economy. The journal of growth & change, 23(4), 446.

Mathew, J. (2012). Product linesand customer.International business times.64(4), 677-689. doi:10.1093/sysbio/syv019

Pearson, A. Nixon, B., &Drongelen, I. K., (2010). Performance measurement in industrial R&D. International Journal Of Management Reviews, 2(2), 111.

Uyeda, J. C., Caetano, D. S., & Pennell, M. W. (2015). Comparative Analysis of Principal Components Can be Misleading. Systematic Business Journal, 6(4), 67-89. doi:10.1093/sysbio/syv019

Vliet, V. (2013). Five Product levels by Philip Kotler, Journal of international business, 8(3), 111-121

 
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Reflective journal

Question: In your words, describe what a culturally safe experience would feel like for a client accessing a service.

What are the key things we need to consider if we are going to try and make our human services culturally safe space? Use at least two points made from any of the course content we have covered to date to support your answer

Answer:

Culturally safe experience

When the organization of any field provides equal services to their every client that are coming from different culture, own belief or values then it creates a culture safety environment in the organization. Within this environment, the client feels safely regarding their culture, identity, and community. The safety feeling of the clients during accessing services from their owner is a culturally safe experience. A culturally safe experience respects the culture, experience, knowledge, and obligations, treats clients with dignity, and provides culturally appropriate services

Two points for creating a culturally safe space

A culturally safe experience in any field, especially in the business organization is very important. Any organization wants to provide and deliver culturally safe servicesto their clients. Nowadays, due to the globalization, every field that provides human services is growing rapidly across the world and gaining clients from all around the world. These clients belong to the different culture, values, and beliefs. Hence, any organization should have to consider the following points whenever they are trying to make human services culturally safe place:

The first thing that needs to consider during building a culture safe space is the culture environment of the organization. The cultural environment influences the clients hence developing a culture environment in the organization where there is no place of assault, no need of identity like who they are, from where they are coming, or what they want is most important for creating a culturally safe space. This type of environment respectsthe culture of every client by sharing his or her knowledge,living, learning experience, working together.
Another most important thing needs to consider is to take care the cultural competency. A cultural competency defines the rules, values, and beliefs of different cultures in the organization so everyone who is associated with the organization needs to work together(Tsuruda& Shepherd, 2016). If the organization will follow the cultural competence and motivates their staff to adopt this then their staff efficiently provide culture safety human services to their clients. This cultural competency creates a cultural safe place from where everyone feels culture safe.

 
References

Cooper, D. (2001). Improving safety culture (2nd ed.). Chichester: Wiley.

Tsuruda, S. & Shepherd, M. (2016).Reflective Practice: Building a Culturally Responsive Pedagogical Framework to Facilitate Safe Bicultural Learning.Advances In Social Work & Welfare Education, 18(1), 23-38.
 

 
Reflective essay for British Airline


Insert Name


Taking drivers to refresher courses to drive the digital and instead of customers queuing

                                                                                                                                  
Employing cleaners to ensure that the seats are always clean

 
Additional aeronautical engineers for aeroplane maintenance

 

Offering services like free delivery of forgotten luggage at the airport

Employing more skilled customer care employees to assist passengers

                                                      
Sourcing companies for Controlled processes like servicing and maintenance aeroplanes

Based on the previous flow chart of the British Airline, I propose a blueprint for the year 2015 that will affect both the customer side and the company side. To start with, at the front stage of the customer side, there will be an improved on checking in of the passenger using scanners; new buses for the passengers; and the use of conveyors instead staircases for entry into plane(Hunter & Lambert, 2016). At the back stage, the proposal is that there will be the use trolley to assist the passengers with hand luggage, Taking drivers to refresher courses to drive the digital and new buses as well as the use of signage to direct customers to plane. On the other hand, at the front stage of the company’s side there will be installation of seats instead of customers queuing at the waiting bay; Sourcing companies for Controlled processes like servicing and maintenance as well as employing more skilled customer care employees to assist passengers(Beckman, 2016). Moreover, at the back stage there will be Employing cleaners to ensure that the seats are always clean; additional aeronautical engineers for aeroplane maintenance as well as offering services like free delivery of forgotten luggage at the airport. All these projected adjustment will go handy in improving the quality of service delivery and eventually improve on customers’ satisfaction. By so doing, the turnover of the Airline is projected to increase by a margin of 10%. This will eventually result into growth and expansion of the British Airline.

Functions of the front and back stages of the British Airline service organization

In most of the service organizations including British Airline, an employee can either be engaged at the front or at the back depending on the structure of management(Tseng, 2015). At the front stage, the employee is tasked with handling the customer directly under close supervision of the managers. For example, in British Airline, front office services include customer care services. At British Airline or any other Airline, customer care employees are tasked with the responsibility of ensuring that the passengers together with their luggage are safely taken into the plane at the right and appropriate time. In this position, the customer care agent is the first person to actually meet the passengers before they embark onto flight. Therefore, the customer care agent and even the airhostesses are required to welcome the passengers into the airline and into the plane respectively. They must be friendly and ready to help at all the time. On the other hand, the back stage of the airline is characterized with mostly the administrative duties. Their core function is to run the operations of the Airline. They are basically involved in policy implementation, hiring of employees and ensuring that the missions and objectives of the Airline are achieved. They may also include the administrative support staff like the secretary, accountants and clerks who don’t deal directly with the passengers but work behind the scenes to ensure that the operations of the Airline goes on smoothly. The aviation administrators are also involved in managing and coordinating all the activities that takes place within the precincts of the Airline.

Moment of truth for British Airline

By definition, “Moment of truth” means those interactions involving too much energy being presented by the customers so that they get the satisfaction they want from a service industry. In a company like British Airline, there can be thousands and thousands of what is described as moments of truth in any single day. It does not matter whether the moments of truth favours or does not favour the Airline in terms of customers’ perception on the quality of service delivery. What is of importance is that normally moments of truth unravels the weaknesses or sometimes the strengths of the Airline(Lee & Han, 2016). Such crucial information can be used to improve on the quality of service delivery and eventually this would translate into positive customers’ satisfaction. Examples of moments of truth in British Airline include flight delay; congestion at the airport waiting lounge; misdirection of customers to flight by the airport workers as well as irregular provision of snacks in the plane leading to the customers staying hungry. In British Airline, customers are usually given priority to discuss their moment of truth with the customer care agents as well as the Airline’s operations manager. The implication is that when the customers’ complains are sorted and well addressed, the customer get connected emotionally with the Airline. This will result into customer retention and eventually the profitability of the Airline will remain stable or rise if other new customers opt to use British Airline.

Determinants of satisfaction and dissatisfaction at British Airline

At British Airline or any other Airline, the determinant of satisfaction or dissatisfaction is usually “customer satisfaction”. This is why the Airline is always engaged in constant marketing of her services to attract customers. The implication is that satisfying customer is a very important aspect in marketing ideology(Seo, 2012). Theories such as Equity Theory, Comparison-Level Theory and Expectation-Disconfirmation are often used to explain this notion of customers’ satisfaction. To start with, Equity Theory outline the importance of treating all the passengers equally and fairy. No passenger should be given preferential treatment at the expense of the other. This implies that no one is discriminated upon. It is a theory that is subscribed to by many Airlines including British Airline. Secondly, Comparison-Level Theory focuses on looking at the market trends and gauging service delivery at the Airline with those of competing Airlines like Turkish Airline or Emirates Airline. By having certain benchmarks and doing comparisons, the Airline will be able to compete with others and continue to make profit. Thirdly, the theory of expectancy-disconfirmation assess the disconfirmation and expectations of customers via performance comparison. In most cases, pre-consumption perception which is usually associated with services or sometimes goods is reflected in expectations. On the other hand, performance forms the foundation of the perception of the customer on the quality of the service being offered by the Airline. Therefore, the three theories, that is; Equity Theory, Comparison-Level Theory and Expectation-Disconfirmation theory are used as tools for service quality measurements at British Airline.

Service recovery plan for British Airline

Based on customer satisfaction, service recovery is a well-thought scheme or plan of bringing back the dissatisfied or aggrieved customers of the Airline back to the usual state of satisfaction with the service or the company. Notably, there is a very big difference between service recovery and complaint management especially if the company or Airline is deemed as have failed in delivery of her services and products(Wu, 2016). However, service recovery may be hindered by the fact that a number of dissatisfied customers usually are reluctant to launch complain. This makes it difficult to solve their problems and dissatisfaction before they leave the airline. There are many ways for service recovery plan for British Airline. The service delivery plan for British Airline Company may include follow-ups, apology, empathy, urgent reinstatement, symbolic atonement and co-creation. Follow-up is generally an after recovery call that is used to ascertain or confirm that the passenger is satisfied with the process of recovery as initiated by the management of the airline. In apology, the customer care agents at the Airline are tasked with the responsibility of making a first person apology as opposed to corporate apology. Here, the customer care agents has to accept and acknowledge that indeed there was failure at the side of the Airline which resulted into customer dissatisfaction. Empathy in service recovery requires that the customer care agent or whoever is concerned gives a sincere and an honest expression of feeling from deep inside for the plight of the passenger. In other words, the customer cares must show some element of remorse. In urgent reinstatement, the Airline must act in speed in attempting to correct things or put the right mechanism in place to correct any possible situation that can be sorted at that particular moment of the event. Moreover, symbolic atonement as a service recovery process requires that some kind of compensation be given to the passenger. Such form of compensation may include service waiver or not charging for the service at all. It may also include giving out discount to the passengers or offering services in future free of any charges. Finally, the Airline has to conduct some follow-ups to ensure that it is on the right tract with regard to service recovery. Follow-up is generally an after recovery call that is used to ascertain or confirm that the passenger is satisfied with the process of recovery as initiated by the management of the airline(Heracleous & Wirtz, 2014).


References

Anaya, G. J., Miao, L., & Mattila, A. S. (2016). Consumer envy during service encounters. The Journal of Services Marketing, 359-362.

Beckman, J. (2016). FASB and IASB diverging perspectives on the new lessee accounting: Implications for international managerial decision-making. International Journal of Managerial Finance, 161-168.

Chang, Y.-C., & Chen, C.-F. (2012). Meeting the needs of disabled air passengers: Factors that facilitate help from airlines and airports. Tourism Management, 529 - 536.

Heracleous, L., & Wirtz, J. (2014). Singapore Airlines: Achieving Sustainable Advantage Through Mastering Paradox. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 150 - 170.

Hunter, J. A., & Lambert, J. R. (2016). Do we feel safer today? The impact of smiling customer service on airline safety perception post 9–11. Journal of Transportation Security, 35 - 56.

Karami, M., Maleki, M. M., & Dubinsky, A. J. (2016). Cultural values and consumers’ expectations and perceptions of service encounter quality. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, 2 - 26.

Lee, C., & Han, L. (2016). Faith-Based Organization and Transnational Voluntarism in China: A Case Study of the Malaysia Airline MH370 Incident. Voluntas, 2353-2358.

Mayr, T., & Zins, A. H. (2012). Extensions on the conceptualization of customer perceived value: insights from the airline industry. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 356 - 376.

Min, H., & Min, H. (2015). Benchmarking the service quality of airlines in the United States: an exploratory analysis. Benchmarking: An International Journal, 734 - 751.

Seo, H. J. (2012). The determinants of export market performance in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development service industries. The Service Industries Journal, 1343-1345.

Tseng, M. L. (2015). Sustainable supply chain management: A closed-loop network hierarchical approach. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 436 - 461.

Wu, C.-L. (2016). Airline Operations and Delay Management: Insights from Airline Economics, Networks and Strategic Schedule Planning. Routledge Ltd.

 
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